Sleeping manners in Islam


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Global Warming and Climate Change

Car tire’s dumped on the Ocean Floor !

Approximately two million old car tire’s are on the ocean floor off Fort Lauderdale in the US, dumped in the 1970s with the intent of creating an artificial reef. The tires are now scouring the ocean floor and wedging against the natural reef, killing coral.

There are no really historical records of the volume and type of material that was spilled in the oceans before the establishment of an anti-dumping law. However, it is estimated that in 1968, 38 million tons of excavated material, 4.5 million tons of industrial waste, 4.5 million sewage sludge, 100 million tons of petroleum-based product (plastic), 2 to 4 tonnes of chemical waste, more than 1 million tons of heavy metals were released into the ocean. The U.S. archive shows that between 1946 and 1970 over 55,000 containers of radioactive waste were disposed in 3 sites of dumping of the Pacific Ocean. In addition, 34,000 tons of radioactive wastes were disposed in 3 sites of dumping of the U.S. east coast between 1951 and 1962. No law on dumping radioactive waste has been put into force before 1972.”

No one has bothered to remove the waste.

Source : Epa : united states environmental agency

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Riwand Tabligi Ijtima

Maulana Abdul Wahab said that people should come towards Islam and make their lives according to Islam.
people Coming to attend the International Raiwind Ijtima 2012 from various cities of Pakistan and abroad.

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Guerrilla Warfare

The term ‘guerrilla’ originates from the actions of small bands of Spanish soldiers who fought against Napolean’s French army in the Peninsular War (1807-1814). The word ‘guerrilla’ is Spanish for “little war”.
The tactics employed by “guerrillas” date back to the ideas of Sun Tzu, the Chinese military strategist who lived over 2000 years ago. Sun Tzu argued that all warfare involves the employing of one’s strength to exploit the weakness of the enemy. In his book, The Art of War, Sun Tzu gives several suggestions on how to defeat an enemy that is larger and better equipped than your own army.
Sun Tzu’s ideas were successfully adapted by Mao Zedong, the leader of the communist forces in China. The establishment of a communist government in China was an inspiration to all revolutionaries in South East Asia. This was especially true of China’s neighbour, Vietnam.
The strategy and tactics of the National Liberation Front were very much based on those used by Mao Zedong in China. The NLF was organised into small groups of between three to ten soldiers. These groups were called cells. These cells worked together but the knowledge they had of each other was kept to the bare minimum. Therefore, when a guerrilla was captured and tortured, his confessions did not do too much damage to the NLF.
The initial objective of the NLF was to gain the support of the peasants living in the rural areas. According to Mao Zedong, the peasants were the sea in which the guerrillas needed to swim: “without the constant and active support of the peasants… failure is inevitable.”
When the NLF entered a village they obeyed a strict code of behaviour. All members were issued with a series of ‘directives’. These included:” (1) Not to do what is likely to damage the land and crops or spoil the houses and belongings of the people; (2) Not to insist on buying or borrowing what the people are not willing to sell or lend; (3) Never to break our word; (4) Not to do or speak what is likely to make people believe that we hold them in contempt; (5) To help them in their daily work (harvesting, fetching firewood, carrying water, sewing, etc.).”
Most peasants in South Vietnam were extremely poor. For centuries, the Vietnamese peasants had accepted this state of affairs because they believed that poverty was a punishment for crimes committed by their ancestors. The NLF educated the peasants in economics and explained how poverty was the result of the landowner’s selfishness. They pointed out that fifty per cent of the agricultural land in South Vietnam was owned by only two and a half per cent of the population. Two thirds of the peasants owned no land at all and were therefore forced to work for the rich landlords.
The NLF’s solution to this problem was to take the property of the large landowners and distribute it amongst the peasants. In some cases, the landowners were executed as a punishment for the way they had treated the peasants in the past.
In return for the land they had been given, the peasants agreed to help the NLF by feeding and hiding them. In some cases, the peasants also agreed to take up arms with the NLF and help ‘liberate’ other villages.
The peasants were motivated by fear as well as a sense of gratitude. The NLF told them that if the United States Marines or ARVN managed to gain control of the village, they would take the land back. Given this situation, it is not surprising that the peasants saw the NLF as their friends and the US Marines/ARVN as the enemy.
This view was re-inforced if the NLF left the village to escape advancing US or South Vietnamese troops. In an effort to discover information about the NLF, the peasants were sometimes tortured. If evidence was found of the NLF being in the village, the people were punished. As William Ehrhart, a US marine explained:”… they’d be beaten pretty badly, maybe tortured. Or they might be hauled off to jail, and God knows what happened to them. At the end of the day, the villagers would be turned loose. Their homes had been wrecked, their chickens killed, their rice confiscated – and if they weren’t pro-Vietcong before we got there, they sure as hell were by the time we left.”
As well as taking over the running of villages, the NLF would send out patrols into government controlled areas. The tactics they employed have been described by Robert Taber, who fought with the guerrillas inCuba, as the war of the flea: “The flea bites, hops, and bites again, nimbly avoiding the foot that would crush him. He does not seek to kill his enemy at a blow, but to bleed him and feed on him, to plague and bedevil him… All this requires time. Still more time is required to breed more fleas… the military enemy suffers the dog’s disadvantages: too much to defend; too small and agile an enemy to come to grips with.”
To defeat the more powerful enemy, the guerrilla needs to dictate the terms of warfare. In the words of Mao Zedong: “The enemy advances, we retreat; the enemy camps, we harass; the enemy tires, we attack; the enemy retreats, we pursue.”
The NLF was told not to go into combat unless it outnumbered the enemy and was certain of winning. It therefore concentrated on attacking small patrols or poorly guarded government positions. To increase its advantage, the NLF relied heavily on night attacks.
At first the NLF used hand-made weapons such as spears, daggers and swords. However, over a period of time, it built up a large supply of captured weapons. A US army survey of weapons in 1964 discovered that 90% of weapons taken from the NLF had previously belonged to the ARVN and the US army.
In 1965, General William Westmoreland developed the aggressive strategy of ‘search and destroy’. The objective was to find and then kill members of the NLF. The US soldiers found this difficult. As one marine captain explained: “You never knew who was the enemy and who was the friend. They all looked alike. They all dressed alike.” Innocent civilians were often killed by mistake. As one Marine officer admitted they “were usually counted as enemy dead, under the unwritten rule ‘If he’s dead and Vietnamese, he’s VC’.”
In the villages they controlled, the NLF often built underground tunnels. These tunnels led out of the villages into the jungle. They also contained caverns where they stored their printing presses, surgical instruments and the equipment for making booby traps and land mines. If US patrols arrived in the village unexpectedly, the NLF would hide in these underground caverns. Even if the troops found the entrance to the tunnels, they could not go into the tunnels as they were often too small for the much larger American soldiers.
The overall strategy of guerrilla warfare is to involve the enemy in a long-drawn out war. The aim is to wear down gradually the much larger and stronger enemy. It is only when all the rural areas are under their control and they are convinced that they outnumber the opposition, that the guerrillas come out into the open and take part in conventional warfare. Thus the NLF, who were based in the thick forests of South Vietnam, began by taking control of the villages in the rural areas. As their strength grew and the enemy retreated, they began to take the smaller towns.

Mountains and Peaks of the world

Mountain peak Range Location Height
ft. m
Everest1 Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 29,035 8,850
K2 (Godwin Austen) Karakoram Pakistan/China 28,250 8,611
Kanchenjunga Himalayas India/Nepal 28,169 8,586
Lhotse I Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 27,940 8,516
Makalu I Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 27,766 8,463
Cho Oyu Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 26,906 8,201
Dhaulagiri Himalayas Nepal 26,795 8,167
Manaslu I Himalayas Nepal 26,781 8,163
Nanga Parbat Himalayas Pakistan 26,660 8,125
Annapurna Himalayas Nepal 26,545 8,091
Gasherbrum I Karakoram Pakistan/China 26,470 8,068
Broad Peak Karakoram Pakistan/China 26,400 8,047
Gasherbrum II Karakoram Pakistan/China 26,360 8,035
Shishma Pangma (Gosainthan) Himalayas Tibet 26,289 8,013
Annapurna II Himalayas Nepal 26,041 7,937
Gyachung Kang Himalayas Nepal 25,910 7,897
Disteghil Sar Karakoram Pakistan 25,858 7,882
Himalchuli Himalayas Nepal 25,801 7,864
Nuptse Himalayas Nepal 25,726 7,841
Nanda Devi Himalayas India 25,663 7,824
Masherbrum Karakoram Kashmir2 25,660 7,821
Rakaposhi Karakoram Pakistan 25,551 7,788
Kanjut Sar Karakoram Pakistan 25,461 7,761
Kamet Himalayas India/Tibet 25,446 7,756
Namcha Barwa Himalayas Tibet 25,445 7,756
Gurla Mandhata Himalayas Tibet 25,355 7,728
Ulugh Muztagh Kunlun Tibet 25,340 7,723
Kungur Muztagh Ata China 25,325 7,719
Tirich Mir Hindu Kush Pakistan 25,230 7,690
Saser Kangri Karakoram India 25,172 7,672
Makalu II Himalayas Nepal 25,120 7,657
Minya Konka (Gongga Shan) Daxue Shan China 24,900 7,590
Kula Kangri Himalayas Bhutan 24,783 7,554
Chang-tzu Himalayas Tibet 24,780 7,553
Muztagh Ata Muztagh Ata China 24,757 7,546
Himalayas Kashmir 24,750 7,544
Ismail Samani Peak (formerly Communism Peak) Pamirs Tajikistan 24,590 7,495
Jongsong Peak Himalayas Nepal 24,472 7,459
Pobeda Peak Tien Shan Kyrgyzstan 24,406 7,439
Sia Kangri Himalayas Kashmir 24,350 7,422
Haramosh Peak Karakoram Pakistan 24,270 7,397
Istoro Nal Hindu Kush Pakistan 24,240 7,388
Tent Peak Himalayas Nepal 24,165 7,365
Chomo Lhari Himalayas Tibet/Bhutan 24,040 7,327
Chamlang Himalayas Nepal 24,012 7,319
Kabru Himalayas Nepal 24,002 7,316
Alung Gangri Himalayas Tibet 24,000 7,315
Baltoro Kangri Himalayas Kashmir 23,990 7,312
Muztagh Ata (K-5) Kunlun China 23,890 7,282
Mana Himalayas India 23,860 7,273
Baruntse Himalayas Nepal 23,688 7,220
Nepal Peak Himalayas Nepal 23,500 7,163
Amne Machin Kunlun China 23,490 7,160
Gauri Sankar Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 23,440 7,145
Badrinath Himalayas India 23,420 7,138
Nunkun Himalayas Kashmir 23,410 7,135
Lenin Peak Pamirs Tajikistan/Kyrgyzstan 23,405 7,134
Pyramid Himalayas Nepal 23,400 7,132
Api Himalayas Nepal 23,399 7,132
Pauhunri Himalayas India/China 23,385 7,128
Trisul Himalayas India 23,360 7,120
Korzhenevski Peak Pamirs Tajikistan 23,310 7,105
Kangto Himalayas Tibet 23,260 7,090
Nyainqentanglha Nyainqentanglha Shan China 23,255 7,088
Trisuli Himalayas India 23,210 7,074
Dunagiri Himalayas India 23,184 7,066
Revolution Peak Pamirs Tajikistan 22,880 6,974
Aconcagua Andes Argentina 22,834 6,960
Ojos del Salado Andes Argentina/Chile 22,664 6,908
Bonete Andes Argentina/Chile 22,546 6,872
Ama Dablam Himalayas Nepal 22,494 6,856
Tupungato Andes Argentina/Chile 22,310 6,800
Moscow Peak Pamirs Tajikistan 22,260 6,785
Pissis Andes Argentina 22,241 6,779
Mercedario Andes Argentina/Chile 22,211 6,770
Huascarán Andes Peru 22,205 6,768
Llullaillaco Andes Argentina/Chile 22,057 6,723
El Libertador Andes Argentina 22,047 6,720
Cachi Andes Argentina 22,047 6,720
Kailas Himalayas Tibet 22,027 6,714
Incahuasi Andes Argentina/Chile 21,720 6,620
Yerupaja Andes Peru 21,709 6,617
Kurumda Pamirs Tajikistan 21,686 6,610
Galan Andes Argentina 21,654 6,600
El Muerto Andes Argentina/Chile 21,463 6,542
Sajama Andes Bolivia 21,391 6,520
Nacimiento Andes Argentina 21,302 6,493
Illampu Andes Bolivia 21,276 6,485
Illimani Andes Bolivia 21,201 6,462
Coropuna Andes Peru 21,083 6,426
Laudo Andes Argentina 20,997 6,400
Ancohuma Andes Bolivia 20,958 6,388
Cuzco Andes Peru 20,945 6,384
Toro Andes Argentina/Chile 20,932 6,380
Tres Cruces Andes Argentina/Chile 20,853 6,356
Huandoy Andes Peru 20,852 6,356
Parinacota Andes Bolivia/Chile 20,768 6,330
Tortolas Andes Argentina/Chile 20,745 6,323
Chimborazo Andes Ecuador 20,702 6,310
Ampato Andes Peru 20,702 6,310
El Condor Andes Argentina 20,669 6,300
Salcantay Andes Peru 20,574 6,271
Huancarhuas Andes Peru 20,531 6,258
Famatina Andes Argentina 20,505 6,250
Pumasillo Andes Peru 20,492 6,246
Solo Andes Argentina 20,492 6,246
Polleras Andes Argentina 20,456 6,235
Pular Andes Chile 20,423 6,225
Chañi Andes Argentina 20,341 6,200
McKinley (Denali) Alaska Alaska 20,320 6,194
Aucanquilcha Andes Chile 20,295 6,186
Juncal Andes Argentina/Chile 20,276 6,180
Negro Andes Argentina 20,184 6,152
Quela Andes Argentina 20,128 6,135
Condoriri Andes Bolivia 20,095 6,125
Palermo Andes Argentina 20,079 6,120
Solimana Andes Peru 20,068 6,117
San Juan Andes Argentina/Chile 20,049 6,111
Sierra Nevada Andes Argentina 20,023 6,103
Antofalla Andes Argentina 20,013 6,100
Marmolejo Andes Argentina/Chile 20,013 6,100

1. The 1954 elevation of Everest, 29,028 ft. (8,848 m) was revised on Nov. 11, 1999, and now stands at 29,035 ft. (8,850 m).
2. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan, and China, and the three countries dispute the boundaries.

Read more: Highest Mountain Peaks of the World —


Earth Quake

Earthquake Information

Information about the deadliest, largest, and most severe earthquakes on record past and present, including the frequency, magnitude, number of earthquakes, and number of deaths worldwide each year.

2004 Tsunami Factfile

Information Please® Database, © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Volcanoes of the World World Geography Latitude and Longitude of World Cities

More on Earthquakes magnitude deaths frequency size from Infoplease:

  • Earthquakes! – Learn about how often earthquakes occur, what causes them, the difference between intensity and magnitude, and about tsunamis.
  • Earthquake – Earthquake 1906 April 18, San Francisco: earthquake accompanied by fire razed more than 4 sq mi; …
  • San Francisco Earthquake: 1906 – The worst natural disaster in U.S. history
  • Earthquake in Taiwan – Earthquake Factsheet Taiwan Tuesday, September 21, 1999, 1:47 a.m. local time by Ricco Villanueva …
  • Earthquake in Turkey – Earthquake Factsheet Learn earthquake basics in Earthquakes 101. Earthquake epicenter: near Izmit, …

Read more: Earthquakes: magnitude, deaths, frequency, size —


Railroad Accidents

While trains are convenient for travel and for transporting goods, they have become a greater danger over the years as their speed has increased. Sometimes railroad accidents are caused by human error, but other causes include derailment, explosions on board, and bridge collapses.
NOTE: Very few passengers were killed in a single U.S. train wreck up until 1853. The early trains ran slowly and made short trips, night travel was rare, and there were not many of them in operation.

June 17, nr. Charleston, S.C.: boiler exploded on America’s first passenger locomotive, The Best Friend of Charleston, injuring the fireman and the engineer.
Nov. 8, nr. Heightstown, N.J.: world’s first train wreck and first passenger fatalities recorded. A 24-passenger Camden & Amboy train derailed due to a broken axle, killing 2 passengers and injuring all others. Former president John Quincy Adams and Cornelius Vanderbilt, who later made a fortune in railroads, were aboard.
May 6, Norwalk, Conn.: New Haven Railroad train ran through an open drawbridge and plunged into the Norwalk River. 46 passengers were crushed to death or drowned. This was the first major drawbridge accident.
July 17, Camp Hill, nr. Ft. Washington, Pa.: 2 Northern Penn trains crashed head-on. Approximately 50–60 people died, mostly children on their way to a Sunday school picnic.
Dec. 29, Ashtabula, Ohio: Lake Shore train fell into the Ashtabula River when the bridge it was crossing collapsedduring a snowstorm; 92 people were killed.
Aug. 10, nr. Chatsworth, Ill.: a burning railroad trestle collapsed while a Toledo, Peoria & Western train was crossing, killing 81 and injuring 372.
Aug. 7, Eden, Colo.: train derailed on bridge during flash flood; 96 killed.
March 1, Wellington, Wash.: 2 trains swept into canyon by avalanche; 96 dead.
May 22, Quintinshill, Scotland: 2 passenger trains and troop train collided at Quintinshill near Gretna Green; 227 killed.
Dec. 12, Modane, France: nearly 550 killed in derailment of troop train near mouth of Mt. Cenis tunnel.
July 9, Nashville, Tenn.: 101 killed in a 2-train collision near Nashville.
Nov. 1, New York City: derailment of subway train in Malbone St. tunnel in Brooklyn left 92 dead.
March 14, Virilla River Canyon, Costa Rica: an overcrowded train carrying pilgrims derailed while crossing the Colima Bridge, killing over 300 people and injuring hundreds more.
Dec. 22, nr. Magdeburg, Germany: more than 125 killed in collision; 99 killed in another wreck near Friedrichshafen.
Dec. 16, nr. Rennert, N.C.: 72 killed in derailment and collision of 2 Atlantic Coast Line trains.
March 2, nr. Salerno, Italy: 521 suffocated when Italian train stalled in tunnel.
Oct. 22, nr. Nowy Dwor, Poland: more than 200 reported killed in derailment of Danzig-Warsaw express.
Nov. 22, Richmond Hill, N.Y.: 79 died when one Long Island Railroad commuter train crashed into rear of another.
Feb. 6, Woodbridge, N.J.: 85 died when Pennsylvania Railroad commuter train plunged through temporary overpass.
Oct. 8, Harrow-Wealdstone, England: 2 express trains crashed into commuter train; 112 dead.
Sept. 1, nr. Kendal, Jamaica: about 175 killed when train plunged into ravine.
Sept. 29, nr. Montgomery, West Pakistan: express train crashed into standing oil train; nearly 300 killed.
Dec. 4, St. John’s, England: 92 killed and 187 injured as one commuter train crashed into another in fog.
Nov. 14, Pardubice, Czechoslovakia: 2 trains collided; 110 dead, 106 injured.
May 3, nr. Tokyo: 163 killed and 400 injured when train crashed into wreckage of collision between inbound freight train and outbound commuter train.
Nov. 9, nr. Yokohama, Japan: 2 passenger trains crashed into derailed freight train, killing 162.
July 26, Custoias, Portugal: passenger train derailed; 94 dead.
Feb. 4, nr. Buenos Aires: 236 killed when express train crashed into standing commuter train.
July 21, Seville, Spain: head-on crash of two passenger trains killed 76.
Oct. 6, nr. Saltillo, Mexico: train carrying religious pilgrims derailed and caught fire, killing 204 and injuring over 1,000.
Oct. 30, Chicago: 2 Illinois Central commuter trains collided during morning rush hour; 45 dead and over 200 injured.
Aug. 30, Zagreb, Yugoslavia: train entering station derailed, killing 153 and injuring over 60.
June 6, nr. Mansi, India: driver of train carrying over 500 passengers braked to avoid hitting a cow, causing train to plunge off a bridge into the Baghmati River; 268 passengers were reported killed, but at least 300 more were missing.
July 11, Tepic, Mexico: Nogales-Guadalajara train plunged down mountain gorge, killing 120.
Jan. 15, Maizdi Khan, Bangladesh: train carrying Muslim pilgrims crashed head-on with a mail train, killing at least 110 people and injuring as many as 1,000. Many people were riding on the roof of the trains and between the cars.
June 3, Ural Mountains: gas exploded beneath 2 trains, killing 575.
Aug. 10, nr. Los Mochis, Mexico: a passenger train traveling from Mazatlán to Mexicali plunged off a bridge at Puente del Rio Bamoa, killing an estimated 85 people and injuring 107.
Jan. 4, Sangi village, Sindh province, Pakistan: overcrowded 16-car passenger train rammed into a standing freight train. At least 210 people were killed and 700 were believed injured in what is said to be Pakistan’s worst train disaster.
Sept. 22, nr. Mobile, Ala.: Amtrak’s Sunset Limited, en route to Miami, jumped rails on weakened bridge and plunged into Big Bayou Canot, killing 47 people.
Aug. 20, Firozabad, northern India: a speeding passenger train rammed another train that was stalled, killing 358.
March 3, Punjab province, Pakistan: passenger train crashed due to failed brakes, killing 119 and injuring at least 80 people.
June 3, nr. Eschede, Germany: Inter City Express passenger train traveling at 125 mph crashed into support pier of overpass, killing 98. It is nation’s worst train accident since WWII.Crash may have been caused by a defective wheel.
Aug. 2, Calcutta, India: 2 trains collided north of Calcutta, killing at least 285.
Oct. 5, London: outbound Thames commuter train passed a red signal near Paddington Station and collided with London-bound Great Western express, killing 31 people and injuring 245.
Feb. 20, nr. Ayyat, Egypt: 361 killed in fire after gas cylinder used for cooking exploded aboard crowded passenger train. Egypt’s worst train disaster.
May 25, Muamba, Mozambique: 192 died and dozens more injured when passenger cars rolled for several miles at top speed into freight cars from which they had been disconnected because of mechanical problems.
June 24, nr. Msagali, central Tanzania: runaway passenger train collided with freight train on same track, leaving 200 dead.
Feb. 18, Neishabour, Iran: runaway rail cars, loaded with fertilizer, petrol, and sulfur products, rolled 31 mi down the rails, caught fire, and exploded, killing more than 320 and devastating 5 villages.
Mar, 11, Madrid, Spain: Spain’s most horrific terrorist attack: 191 people were killed and 1,400 were injured in bombings at Madrid’s railway station. A Moroccan affiliate of al-Qaeda claimed responsibility.
April 22, Ryongchon, North Korea: 2 trains carrying flammable liquids collided, causing a huge explosion near the Chinese border, killing at least 161 and injuring more than 1,300.
April 25, Osaka, Japan: commuter train derailed and hit an apartment building near Osaka, killing at least 107 and injuring 460. It was the worst Japanese train accident since 1963. The accident was allegedly caused by the driver trying to get the train back on schedule.
July 13, Ghotki, Pakistan: 3 trains collided near Ghotki as the Karachi Express driver misread a signal and rammed the Quetta Express. Derailed carriages were then hit by a third train. At least 133 are killed.
Jan. 23, Bioce, Montenegro: a train derailed and plunged into the Moraca canyon, killing 46 and injuring 19.
July 11, Mumbai, India: a series of bombs exploded on commuter trains in Mumbai during the evening rush hour, killing at least 200 people.
Aug. 1, Benaleka, Congo: a passenger train running between Ilebo and Kananga derailed after the brakes failed, killing about 100 people.
Dec. 19, Mehrabpurp, Pakistan: a crowded passenger train derailed, killing at least 45 people and injuring over 100 more.
April 28, China: a passenger train running from Beijing to Qingdao city derailed, killing 70 people and injuring more than 400 others.
Aug. 8, Czech Republic: a passenger train running from Krakow to Prague crashed into a collapsed bridge, killing six people and injuring about 100 others.
Sept. 12, California: a metrolink commuter train collided with a freight train northwest of Los Angeles, killing 25 passengers.
June 22, Washington D.C.: nine people died and over 70 more were injured when a subway train crashed at rush hour.
June 30, Italy: a freight train that was traveling from La Spezia to Pisa derailed and crashed into a small Italian town, killing 12 people and injuring at least 50 more.
November 27, Russia: 26 people are killed when a bomb explodes on a luxury train that runs from Moscow to St. Petersburg. Chechen rebels claim responsibility for the attack..

Information Please® Database, © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Read more: Railroad Accidents: number of deaths, dates and locations of crashes —


History of world worst Disasters

Compiled by David B. Hall
The world has seen many disasters over the years. Many were caused by people – wars, terrorists… Others are sometimes referred to as “acts of God”.  It’s very difficult to rank them because there are different ways of defining “worst” (some would just count the dead, others would include the injured, still others would measure in terms of the amount of dollars required to repair the damages, or somehow calculate the damage to the environment…) and there are different ways of defining “natural”. Nevertheless the following is a substantial list of some of the world’s worst natural disasters.  All of these disasters took more than 25,000 lives. 43 of these disasters took over 100,000 lives (see second disaster list near the end for death toll rank).

Note: These 66 are listed sequentially, not by amount of lives lost or damage done. Some may have other situations which COULD be included in preference to some of these. Note also, we’re only going back less than 900 years here, because there’s little record to document natural disasters prior to that. 

Also note that many figures are only rough estimates. As we have seen recently, after so many thousands, many people assisting with the disaster relief stop keeping accurate records – they’re just too overwhelmed, too tired, too busy doing what has to be done and still survive themselves, that keeping detailed records ceases to be a priority for them. In some cases government authorities for various reasons have tried to hide the true figures (see 1976, China below); other situations involve more deaths from the “aftermath”, so there are different reports given by different sources.

The TEN Worst Natural Disasters in the last thousand years (not counting malaria) – each with a million or more deaths – are coded.  These ten combined resulted in over one hundred million lives lost – mostly through famine or plague.
What lessons can be learned from this information?


Syria, Aleppo – 1138Earthquake kills 230,000 people

Japan, 1181

famine wipes out at least 100,000 people.

Egypt and Syria, 1201
The deadliest earthquake in history hit the eastern Mediterranean in July 1201. Approximately 1.1 million people were killed, mostly in Egypt and Syria. This makes it close to one of the ten worst natural disasters in recorded history.

Netherlands, 1228

Estimate: 100,000 lives lost from the flooding after some dykes broke.

Netherlands, 1287

The Zuider Zee flooded after a seawall callapsed. At least 50,000 people were killed in Holland and more than 500 in England as a result.

China, 1290

Earthquake takes at least 100,000 people.

Most of Europe and beyond, 1347-1350
Approximately 25 million lost their lives through the “Black Death” – the bubonic plague. Between 25 and 33% of the entire population of Europe at that time, plus millions in Asia and North Africalost their lives.

China, 1556
Earthquake in Shansi, China kills about 830,000

China, 1642
Flooding takes about 300,000 lives.

Spain, 1649

Plague takes about 80,000 lives in Seville.

Western Hemisphere, mostly 16th – 18th centuries
Untold millions of lives of American Indians were lost through the various sicknesses brought over from Europe (to which they had no previous exposure or resistance.) It’s very difficult to get figures on this that are not politically infected one way or another (very high or very low).

China, 1556
The second deadliest earthquake was in the Chinese province of Shaanzi on February 2, 1556. It killed 830,000 people.

England, 1665

More than 100,000 lives were taken by the plagueLondon was worst hit.

Japan, 1730
Earthquake took the lives of some 137,000 people.

India, 1737
First it was thought to be an earthquake, but more recent scientific studies have re-classified it as a typhoon – this tragedy killed some300,000 in Calcutta.

, 1755
Over 100,000 lost their lives through “the Lisbon earthquake” and resulting tsunami.

India, 1769
About ten million people lost their lives from a famine in Bengal.

North America, 1775-82

Smallpox takes around 130,000 lives.

Iran, 1780

As many as 200,000 were killed in an earthquake near Tabriz.

Iceland, 1783

a volcanic eruption (that included the largest basalt flow in recorded history) poisoned the island’s pastures and caused the starvation of about 25% of the population – 30,000+.

, 1815
Mount Tambora (volcano) on Sumbawa Island released about 50 cubic kilometers of magma over at least 500,000 square kilometers ofIndonesia and the Java Sea. That eruption and the resulting tsunami took at least 10,000 lives. But the famine and disease that followed took another 82,000 lives – total: over 90,000.

, 1826
Tsunami kills about 27,000.

Ireland, 1845 – 48
“Potato Famine” takes at least a million lives.

France, Germany, America, etc., 1870
approximately 500,000 lives lost as a result of smallpox.

China, 1876 – 1879
The deadliest drought in recorded history was in China between 1876 and 1879. Rivers were dry, so most crops and livestock died. There was no food production in a 1-million km2 area of 9 provinces.The drought caused the death of an estimated nine million people.

Java and Sumatra, 1883
Krakatoa, a small volcano on an uninhabited island between Sumatra and Java (Indonesia), erupted with such fury it could be heard inAustralia nearly 5,000 kilometers away. The tsunami that followed took about 50,000 lives.

, 1887

The worst flood in “modern history” happened in China in 1887. The Yellow River overflowed, causing the death of about 900,000people. (Some reports say it was a million that parished.)

Japan, 1896
About 28,000 people lost their lives from a Tsunami

only survivor

, 1902
Martinique, a small French colony in the Caribbean, has a volcano “Mont Pelee” which unleashed its fury and wiped out the town of St. Pierre. Only one survivor – pictured on right: a prisoner in a basement cell. (There’s a good chance he got his life right with God before that day was over!)  But there were actually two others who also survived. see their amazing stories  Around 30,000 people were killed.

, 1908
An earthquake of 7.2 magnitute and the tidal wave that resulted, destroyed several southernmost Italian cities and towns and approximately 123,000 people.

China, 1911
Yangtze River flood – approx: 100,000 deaths.

Italy, 1915
AvezzanoItaly – 7.5 earthyquake takes nearly 30,000 lives.

World-wide, 1918 – 19
Influenza pandemic takes somewhere between 35 million and 75 million lives (some reports estimate around a hundred million, but those can’t be confirmed) – at least 16 million people died in India alone. This is clearly the worst disaster – at least in the last thousand years.

, 1920In the north China there was a drought that caused 20 million victims and took at least 500,00 lives.

China, Gansu – 1920GansuChina is hit with an earthquake measuring 8.6 and kills around 200,000 people.

, 1923
A third of Tokyo is destroyed and much of Yokohama in an 8.3 earthquake which between 140,000 and 200,000 people.

, 1927
An earthquake 7.9 – hit Nanshan City and took about 200,000 people.

China, 1931

flood on the Changjiang River took at least 145,000 people (other estimates go over a million, but we have not confirmed that).

, 1932
Another earthquake, this one northwest Gansu Province, killed about 70,000 people.

China, 1935
Another Yellow River flood caused 27 counties inundated and 3.4 million victims”.  How many actual lives were killed we don’t know. If you have facts, let us hear from you

China, 1933

Another Changjiang River flood takes the lives of at least 140,000 people.

, 1935
About 30,000 lost their lives in a 7.5 earthquake.

Chile, 1939
Some 28,000 people were killed from an 8.3 earthquake in Chile.

China, 1939flood takes about 200,000 lives.

, 1939
More than 32,000 lives were lost from a 7.9 quake in Erzican Province.

China, 1942 – 1943drought in the Henan province took the lives of more than a million people.

Turkmenistan (USSR), 1948
A 7.3 earthquake took over 110,000 lives.

India, 1950
Around 30,000 people lost their lives in a quake of 8.6 magnitude in AssamIndia.

World-wide, 1957
At least a hundred thousand people (some reports say over a million) died from the “Asian Flu” – about 70,000 in the USA alone.

China, 1958 – 61
As many as 20 million people died in this famine. *
* We received the following response to this post

Sirs: I would ask that you consider re-characterizing the 20-30 million who died in China during the period 1959-61 as a political blunder rather than a famine. Famines are typically understood to be the result of diminished food production due to weather or other natural disasters. This was not the case in China. Food production was for the most part normal during this period. What changed was the desire of local cadre wanting to look good and reporting increased food production following Mao’s politics of “right” practices. Mao’s government simply took their share of the harvest, 50%. But since the reported harvest was in fact inflated, what resulted was the entire production being shipped to Beijing. This more accurately could be labeled Mao’s Holocaust. Respectfully, Doug Searles

, 1970
A 7.9 earthquake and resulting landslides killed about  66,000 in Northern Peru.

19 – Bangladesh, 1970 
In 1970, a cyclone and related floods killed about 500,000 people. With winds of up to 230 km/h, the cyclone crashed into the heavily populated coastal area of the Bay of Bengal, where several river deltas normally provide fertile land. The terrible winds produced massive waves, which wiped out many entire villages. Millions of people were left homeless in this country that is one of the most densely populated and one of the poorest in the world.

Vietnam, 1971Red River flood flood leaves about 100,000 dead.
China, Tangshan – 1976
The worst earthquake damage in modern times was in northeast China in 1976. It was July 28 when a massive quake, measuring 8.3 on the Richter scale, shook the industrial mining city of Tangshan. Officially 255,000 people died, and another 164,000 were severely injured. But others (unofficial, but perhaps more accurate?) estimate that about 655,000 perished. Some ninety per cent of the buildings were destroyed. It took at least ten years and massive investment to rebuild the city.

Africa, 1981 – 1984
Rivers and lakes dried up from the drought that had incredible impact on twenty African nations. During one season about 20,000 were starving to death EACH MONTH.  150 million were facing starvation if help didn’t come right away. People from around the world began to respond to this crisis – but for hundreds of thousandsof people, it was too late. (If you have figures for this, please let us know. When combined with other relatively recent African famines, the fugure is well over 1,000,000)

Colombia, 1985
Volcano Nevado Del Ruiz claimed the lives of at least 25,000 – mostly from the mudflow which resulted from the volcanic eruption.

Armenia, 1988
An earthquake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale devastated Armenia in 1988. At that time Armenia was a republic of the Soviet Union. The town of Spitak was destroyed and it took the lives of all of its residents. In LeninakanArmenia‘s second largest city, eighty per cent of the buildings collapsed, and over 100,000 people perished there.

Iran, 1990
a 7.7 earthquake in northwest Iran killed at least 50,000 people.

Bangladesh, 1991
Flooding again took its toll on this nation. About  139,000 lost their lives.

North Korea, 1995-98
Over 3 million are said to have died from famine and floods in North Korea.

West Africa, 1996
About 25,000 loose their lives from a meningites outbreak.

Iran, 2003
Earthquake in Bam, Iran, officially kills 26,271 people.

12 South Asian Nations, 2004 – 2005

Earthquake of 9.0 and the resulting tsunami creates one of the world’s worst disasters.  It does major damage to: Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Maldives, Somalia, Tanzania, Seychelles, Bangladesh, and Andaman.  Deaths: Between 235,000 and 285,000.

Tsunami Disaster Reports bnr

South Asia, 2005 
Earthquake, primarily affecting Pakistan, but also India and Afganistan.  Current figures: over 50,000 dead.

Haiti, 2010
Earthquate – still counting. Most estimates now exceed 220,000 dead.

1 – Worldwide, every year
Malaria takes 2 to 5 million lives. *


11 Extra  –  No charge

Iceland, 1707 
Smallpox killed more than 15,000 people (one-third of the population).

Caribbean, 1780
“The Great Hurricane” as it was known, hit the Caribbean in October 1780. It is still the most deadly Western Hemisphere hurricane on record. It killed some  22,000 people on the islands of MartiniqueSt. Eustatius, and Barbados

England, France, Egypt…, 1831-32
Cholera epidemic spreads from Cairo and hits both London and Paris very hard, leaving about 25,000 dead.

, 1871
A massive forest fire destroyed much of Wisconsin: 9 towns and 1,500 people.

Turkey, 1999 

the earthquake that struck in Golcuk
 killing about 17,000 people.
San Francisco
, 1906
The most famous — and deadliest — earthquake to strike the United States was the San Francisco earthquake of 1906. The estimation was 8.3 on the Richter scale, but worse than the shaking itself, the earthquake caused fires that burned out of control for three days. Two thirds of the city burned down, and totally wiped out the downtown business district. Tens of thousands of people lost their homes and fled the city and an estimated 3000 people died.
American Midwest, eight year drought
During the Depression the American and Canadian Midwest experienced an eight-year drought. It ruined once-fertile soil, kicked up tremendous dust storms and caused thousands of deaths. The lack of rain left huge areas of farmland without any water. The topsoil was taken up by the wind, creating huge dark clouds of dust that seemed to turn day into night. People died of starvation and lung diseases caused by breathing in the dust-filled air. Thousands of farmers had to declare bankruptcy. 350,000 people deserted the region. It was the worst drought in North American history.
China, 1991
China suffered another massive flood from exceptionally heavy rains. At one point, 40 centimeters fell in two days. The worst of the flooding occurred at Tai Hu, a lake at the mouth of the Yangtze River. This important industrial and agricultural region was devastated. The economic loss and the human toll were costly – over 2,000 people died. In one province, a million homes were swept away. Overall, the flood seriously impacted the lives of over  200 million people.

Florida and Louisiana, 1992The most costly hurricane in American history was Andrew.  58 people were killed and so many homes and shops were destroyed, the total cost was at least$27 billion.  In terms of dollars, this ranks as the worst natural disaster.

USA and Canada, 1993
Because of the media it became known as “The Storm of the Century” – from snow blizzards of artic air clashing with the warm air from the gulf of Mexico, combined with strong winds and freezing temperatures, it essentially paralyzed the Eastern part of the U.S.  Roofs collapsed, power lines fell, all major airports closed down…  Summary of the damages: 243 deaths, $3 billion.

bird and rainbow

Global, about 3200 BC
“Considerable evidence exists for a major global paleoclimate event that happened around 3000 B.C. It appears to have affected sea-level changes, vegetation and much surface chemistry. There is speculation that this event is in fact the Biblical Flood of the Old Testament. Scientists naturally avoid equating ‘natural’ disasters with ‘Acts of God’, but in this case the time coincidence is very suggestive.” –Selection by David Crossley, Chair and Professor of Geophysics…


*  “We had malaria defeated in the sixties thanks to DDT.  Since Rachel Carson’s book “Silent Spring” inspired the DDT ban, 60-70 million have died of malaria.  It’s hard to find anyone who cares more about a couple million deaths a year from malaria than about 4 birth defects a year that the use of DDT might cause.”  Arthur Henry

Recommended Reading:

Disaster Survival Tips – by Doug Copp

Be Ready – Homeland Security and Christian Emergency Network encourage people to be ready

The Big One – What would happen if The Big One came? Are you ready? – by David Hall

What to do when your world crashes – Ten things you can do
10 Major Catastrophes – Each of these natural disasters has taken over a million lives – 6 of them in the last 85 years




44 Disasters of over 100,000 Deaths Number of Deaths Disaster Type
1 – Worldwide, every year
2 to 5 million a year Malaria
2 – Western Hemisphere, mostly 16th – 18th centuries
unknown millions European Sicknesses
3 – Africa, 1981 – 1984 unknown millions Drought
4 – World-wide, 1918 – 19 35 to 100 million Influenza pandemic
5 – Europe and beyond, 1347-1350 25 million Bubonic plague
6 – China, 1958 – 61 20 million Famine
7 – India, 1769 10 million Famine
8 – China, 1876 – 1879 9 million Drought
9 – North Korea, 1995-98 3 million + Famine and Floods
10 – China, 1935 2 million + ? Flood
11 – Egypt and Syria, 1201 1.1 million Earthquake
12 – Ireland, 1845 – 48 1 million + Famine
13 – China, 1942 – 1943 1 million + Drought
14 – China, 1887 900,000 Flood
15 – China, 1556 830,000 Earthquake
16 – China, 1976 600,000 Earthquake
17 – China, 1920 500,000 + Drought
18 – France, Germany, America, etc., 1870 500,000 Smallpox
19 – Bangladesh, 1970 500,000 Floods
20 – World-wide, 1957 400,000 ? “Asian Flu”
21 – India, 1737 300,000 Typhoon
22 – China, 1642 300,000 Flood
23 – South Asia, 2004 283,106 Tsunami / Earthquake
24 – Syria, Aleppo, 1138 230,000 Earthquake
25 – Iran, 1780 200,000 Earthquake
26 – China, 1920 200,000 Earthquake
27 – China, 1927 200,000 Earthquake
28 – China, 1939 200,000 Flood
29 – Japan, 1923 170,000 Earthquake
30 – China, 1931 150,000 + Flood
31 – China, 1933 140,000 Flood
32 – Bangladesh, 1991 139,000 Earthquake
33 – Japan, 1730 137,000 Earthquake
34 – North America, 1775-82 130,000 Smallpox
35 – Italy, 1908 123,000 Earthquake
36 – Turkmensistan (USSR), 1948 110,000  Earthquake
37 – Armenia, 1988 100,000 + Earthquake
38 – Japan 100,000 + Famine
39 – China,  1290 100,000 + Earthquake
40 – Netherlands, 1228 100,000 + Flooding from broken dykes
41 – England, 1665 100,000 + Plague
42 – Portugal, 1775 100,000 + Tsunami / Earthquake
43 – Vietnam, 1971 100,000 + Flood
44 – Haiti, 2010 100,000 + Earthquake


Map of Pakistan

A wonderful map of Pakistan.