Sleeping manners in Islam

 
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Global Warming and Climate Change

 
Car tire’s dumped on the Ocean Floor !

Approximately two million old car tire’s are on the ocean floor off Fort Lauderdale in the US, dumped in the 1970s with the intent of creating an artificial reef. The tires are now scouring the ocean floor and wedging against the natural reef, killing coral.


There are no really historical records of the volume and type of material that was spilled in the oceans before the establishment of an anti-dumping law. However, it is estimated that in 1968, 38 million tons of excavated material, 4.5 million tons of industrial waste, 4.5 million sewage sludge, 100 million tons of petroleum-based product (plastic), 2 to 4 tonnes of chemical waste, more than 1 million tons of heavy metals were released into the ocean. The U.S. archive shows that between 1946 and 1970 over 55,000 containers of radioactive waste were disposed in 3 sites of dumping of the Pacific Ocean. In addition, 34,000 tons of radioactive wastes were disposed in 3 sites of dumping of the U.S. east coast between 1951 and 1962. No law on dumping radioactive waste has been put into force before 1972.”

No one has bothered to remove the waste.


Source : Epa : united states environmental agency

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Riwand Tabligi Ijtima

Maulana Abdul Wahab said that people should come towards Islam and make their lives according to Islam.
people Coming to attend the International Raiwind Ijtima 2012 from various cities of Pakistan and abroad.

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Guerrilla Warfare

The term ‘guerrilla’ originates from the actions of small bands of Spanish soldiers who fought against Napolean’s French army in the Peninsular War (1807-1814). The word ‘guerrilla’ is Spanish for “little war”.
The tactics employed by “guerrillas” date back to the ideas of Sun Tzu, the Chinese military strategist who lived over 2000 years ago. Sun Tzu argued that all warfare involves the employing of one’s strength to exploit the weakness of the enemy. In his book, The Art of War, Sun Tzu gives several suggestions on how to defeat an enemy that is larger and better equipped than your own army.
Sun Tzu’s ideas were successfully adapted by Mao Zedong, the leader of the communist forces in China. The establishment of a communist government in China was an inspiration to all revolutionaries in South East Asia. This was especially true of China’s neighbour, Vietnam.
The strategy and tactics of the National Liberation Front were very much based on those used by Mao Zedong in China. The NLF was organised into small groups of between three to ten soldiers. These groups were called cells. These cells worked together but the knowledge they had of each other was kept to the bare minimum. Therefore, when a guerrilla was captured and tortured, his confessions did not do too much damage to the NLF.
The initial objective of the NLF was to gain the support of the peasants living in the rural areas. According to Mao Zedong, the peasants were the sea in which the guerrillas needed to swim: “without the constant and active support of the peasants… failure is inevitable.”
When the NLF entered a village they obeyed a strict code of behaviour. All members were issued with a series of ‘directives’. These included:” (1) Not to do what is likely to damage the land and crops or spoil the houses and belongings of the people; (2) Not to insist on buying or borrowing what the people are not willing to sell or lend; (3) Never to break our word; (4) Not to do or speak what is likely to make people believe that we hold them in contempt; (5) To help them in their daily work (harvesting, fetching firewood, carrying water, sewing, etc.).”
Most peasants in South Vietnam were extremely poor. For centuries, the Vietnamese peasants had accepted this state of affairs because they believed that poverty was a punishment for crimes committed by their ancestors. The NLF educated the peasants in economics and explained how poverty was the result of the landowner’s selfishness. They pointed out that fifty per cent of the agricultural land in South Vietnam was owned by only two and a half per cent of the population. Two thirds of the peasants owned no land at all and were therefore forced to work for the rich landlords.
The NLF’s solution to this problem was to take the property of the large landowners and distribute it amongst the peasants. In some cases, the landowners were executed as a punishment for the way they had treated the peasants in the past.
In return for the land they had been given, the peasants agreed to help the NLF by feeding and hiding them. In some cases, the peasants also agreed to take up arms with the NLF and help ‘liberate’ other villages.
The peasants were motivated by fear as well as a sense of gratitude. The NLF told them that if the United States Marines or ARVN managed to gain control of the village, they would take the land back. Given this situation, it is not surprising that the peasants saw the NLF as their friends and the US Marines/ARVN as the enemy.
This view was re-inforced if the NLF left the village to escape advancing US or South Vietnamese troops. In an effort to discover information about the NLF, the peasants were sometimes tortured. If evidence was found of the NLF being in the village, the people were punished. As William Ehrhart, a US marine explained:”… they’d be beaten pretty badly, maybe tortured. Or they might be hauled off to jail, and God knows what happened to them. At the end of the day, the villagers would be turned loose. Their homes had been wrecked, their chickens killed, their rice confiscated – and if they weren’t pro-Vietcong before we got there, they sure as hell were by the time we left.”
As well as taking over the running of villages, the NLF would send out patrols into government controlled areas. The tactics they employed have been described by Robert Taber, who fought with the guerrillas inCuba, as the war of the flea: “The flea bites, hops, and bites again, nimbly avoiding the foot that would crush him. He does not seek to kill his enemy at a blow, but to bleed him and feed on him, to plague and bedevil him… All this requires time. Still more time is required to breed more fleas… the military enemy suffers the dog’s disadvantages: too much to defend; too small and agile an enemy to come to grips with.”
To defeat the more powerful enemy, the guerrilla needs to dictate the terms of warfare. In the words of Mao Zedong: “The enemy advances, we retreat; the enemy camps, we harass; the enemy tires, we attack; the enemy retreats, we pursue.”
The NLF was told not to go into combat unless it outnumbered the enemy and was certain of winning. It therefore concentrated on attacking small patrols or poorly guarded government positions. To increase its advantage, the NLF relied heavily on night attacks.
At first the NLF used hand-made weapons such as spears, daggers and swords. However, over a period of time, it built up a large supply of captured weapons. A US army survey of weapons in 1964 discovered that 90% of weapons taken from the NLF had previously belonged to the ARVN and the US army.
In 1965, General William Westmoreland developed the aggressive strategy of ‘search and destroy’. The objective was to find and then kill members of the NLF. The US soldiers found this difficult. As one marine captain explained: “You never knew who was the enemy and who was the friend. They all looked alike. They all dressed alike.” Innocent civilians were often killed by mistake. As one Marine officer admitted they “were usually counted as enemy dead, under the unwritten rule ‘If he’s dead and Vietnamese, he’s VC’.”
In the villages they controlled, the NLF often built underground tunnels. These tunnels led out of the villages into the jungle. They also contained caverns where they stored their printing presses, surgical instruments and the equipment for making booby traps and land mines. If US patrols arrived in the village unexpectedly, the NLF would hide in these underground caverns. Even if the troops found the entrance to the tunnels, they could not go into the tunnels as they were often too small for the much larger American soldiers.
The overall strategy of guerrilla warfare is to involve the enemy in a long-drawn out war. The aim is to wear down gradually the much larger and stronger enemy. It is only when all the rural areas are under their control and they are convinced that they outnumber the opposition, that the guerrillas come out into the open and take part in conventional warfare. Thus the NLF, who were based in the thick forests of South Vietnam, began by taking control of the villages in the rural areas. As their strength grew and the enemy retreated, they began to take the smaller towns.

Mountains and Peaks of the world

Mountain peak Range Location Height
ft. m
Everest1 Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 29,035 8,850
K2 (Godwin Austen) Karakoram Pakistan/China 28,250 8,611
Kanchenjunga Himalayas India/Nepal 28,169 8,586
Lhotse I Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 27,940 8,516
Makalu I Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 27,766 8,463
Cho Oyu Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 26,906 8,201
Dhaulagiri Himalayas Nepal 26,795 8,167
Manaslu I Himalayas Nepal 26,781 8,163
Nanga Parbat Himalayas Pakistan 26,660 8,125
Annapurna Himalayas Nepal 26,545 8,091
Gasherbrum I Karakoram Pakistan/China 26,470 8,068
Broad Peak Karakoram Pakistan/China 26,400 8,047
Gasherbrum II Karakoram Pakistan/China 26,360 8,035
Shishma Pangma (Gosainthan) Himalayas Tibet 26,289 8,013
Annapurna II Himalayas Nepal 26,041 7,937
Gyachung Kang Himalayas Nepal 25,910 7,897
Disteghil Sar Karakoram Pakistan 25,858 7,882
Himalchuli Himalayas Nepal 25,801 7,864
Nuptse Himalayas Nepal 25,726 7,841
Nanda Devi Himalayas India 25,663 7,824
Masherbrum Karakoram Kashmir2 25,660 7,821
Rakaposhi Karakoram Pakistan 25,551 7,788
Kanjut Sar Karakoram Pakistan 25,461 7,761
Kamet Himalayas India/Tibet 25,446 7,756
Namcha Barwa Himalayas Tibet 25,445 7,756
Gurla Mandhata Himalayas Tibet 25,355 7,728
Ulugh Muztagh Kunlun Tibet 25,340 7,723
Kungur Muztagh Ata China 25,325 7,719
Tirich Mir Hindu Kush Pakistan 25,230 7,690
Saser Kangri Karakoram India 25,172 7,672
Makalu II Himalayas Nepal 25,120 7,657
Minya Konka (Gongga Shan) Daxue Shan China 24,900 7,590
Kula Kangri Himalayas Bhutan 24,783 7,554
Chang-tzu Himalayas Tibet 24,780 7,553
Muztagh Ata Muztagh Ata China 24,757 7,546
Skyang
Kangri
Himalayas Kashmir 24,750 7,544
Ismail Samani Peak (formerly Communism Peak) Pamirs Tajikistan 24,590 7,495
Jongsong Peak Himalayas Nepal 24,472 7,459
Pobeda Peak Tien Shan Kyrgyzstan 24,406 7,439
Sia Kangri Himalayas Kashmir 24,350 7,422
Haramosh Peak Karakoram Pakistan 24,270 7,397
Istoro Nal Hindu Kush Pakistan 24,240 7,388
Tent Peak Himalayas Nepal 24,165 7,365
Chomo Lhari Himalayas Tibet/Bhutan 24,040 7,327
Chamlang Himalayas Nepal 24,012 7,319
Kabru Himalayas Nepal 24,002 7,316
Alung Gangri Himalayas Tibet 24,000 7,315
Baltoro Kangri Himalayas Kashmir 23,990 7,312
Muztagh Ata (K-5) Kunlun China 23,890 7,282
Mana Himalayas India 23,860 7,273
Baruntse Himalayas Nepal 23,688 7,220
Nepal Peak Himalayas Nepal 23,500 7,163
Amne Machin Kunlun China 23,490 7,160
Gauri Sankar Himalayas Nepal/Tibet 23,440 7,145
Badrinath Himalayas India 23,420 7,138
Nunkun Himalayas Kashmir 23,410 7,135
Lenin Peak Pamirs Tajikistan/Kyrgyzstan 23,405 7,134
Pyramid Himalayas Nepal 23,400 7,132
Api Himalayas Nepal 23,399 7,132
Pauhunri Himalayas India/China 23,385 7,128
Trisul Himalayas India 23,360 7,120
Korzhenevski Peak Pamirs Tajikistan 23,310 7,105
Kangto Himalayas Tibet 23,260 7,090
Nyainqentanglha Nyainqentanglha Shan China 23,255 7,088
Trisuli Himalayas India 23,210 7,074
Dunagiri Himalayas India 23,184 7,066
Revolution Peak Pamirs Tajikistan 22,880 6,974
Aconcagua Andes Argentina 22,834 6,960
Ojos del Salado Andes Argentina/Chile 22,664 6,908
Bonete Andes Argentina/Chile 22,546 6,872
Ama Dablam Himalayas Nepal 22,494 6,856
Tupungato Andes Argentina/Chile 22,310 6,800
Moscow Peak Pamirs Tajikistan 22,260 6,785
Pissis Andes Argentina 22,241 6,779
Mercedario Andes Argentina/Chile 22,211 6,770
Huascarán Andes Peru 22,205 6,768
Llullaillaco Andes Argentina/Chile 22,057 6,723
El Libertador Andes Argentina 22,047 6,720
Cachi Andes Argentina 22,047 6,720
Kailas Himalayas Tibet 22,027 6,714
Incahuasi Andes Argentina/Chile 21,720 6,620
Yerupaja Andes Peru 21,709 6,617
Kurumda Pamirs Tajikistan 21,686 6,610
Galan Andes Argentina 21,654 6,600
El Muerto Andes Argentina/Chile 21,463 6,542
Sajama Andes Bolivia 21,391 6,520
Nacimiento Andes Argentina 21,302 6,493
Illampu Andes Bolivia 21,276 6,485
Illimani Andes Bolivia 21,201 6,462
Coropuna Andes Peru 21,083 6,426
Laudo Andes Argentina 20,997 6,400
Ancohuma Andes Bolivia 20,958 6,388
Cuzco Andes Peru 20,945 6,384
 (Ausangate)      
Toro Andes Argentina/Chile 20,932 6,380
Tres Cruces Andes Argentina/Chile 20,853 6,356
Huandoy Andes Peru 20,852 6,356
Parinacota Andes Bolivia/Chile 20,768 6,330
Tortolas Andes Argentina/Chile 20,745 6,323
Chimborazo Andes Ecuador 20,702 6,310
Ampato Andes Peru 20,702 6,310
El Condor Andes Argentina 20,669 6,300
Salcantay Andes Peru 20,574 6,271
Huancarhuas Andes Peru 20,531 6,258
Famatina Andes Argentina 20,505 6,250
Pumasillo Andes Peru 20,492 6,246
Solo Andes Argentina 20,492 6,246
Polleras Andes Argentina 20,456 6,235
Pular Andes Chile 20,423 6,225
Chañi Andes Argentina 20,341 6,200
McKinley (Denali) Alaska Alaska 20,320 6,194
Aucanquilcha Andes Chile 20,295 6,186
Juncal Andes Argentina/Chile 20,276 6,180
Negro Andes Argentina 20,184 6,152
Quela Andes Argentina 20,128 6,135
Condoriri Andes Bolivia 20,095 6,125
Palermo Andes Argentina 20,079 6,120
Solimana Andes Peru 20,068 6,117
San Juan Andes Argentina/Chile 20,049 6,111
Sierra Nevada Andes Argentina 20,023 6,103
Antofalla Andes Argentina 20,013 6,100
Marmolejo Andes Argentina/Chile 20,013 6,100

1. The 1954 elevation of Everest, 29,028 ft. (8,848 m) was revised on Nov. 11, 1999, and now stands at 29,035 ft. (8,850 m).
2. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan, and China, and the three countries dispute the boundaries.

Read more: Highest Mountain Peaks of the World — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001771.html#ixzz2JR3c0gPn

Earth Quake

Earthquake Information

Information about the deadliest, largest, and most severe earthquakes on record past and present, including the frequency, magnitude, number of earthquakes, and number of deaths worldwide each year.

2004 Tsunami Factfile


Information Please® Database, © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Read more: Earthquakes: magnitude, deaths, frequency, size — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001767.html#ixzz2JR1a4rcL