Most Famous Scientists

 

When I was at school, I have to admit that I didn’t really like science. Not out of difficulty, but out of disinterest. Now I’m older, I find science a lot more interesting and can appreciate the subject more.
Here are ten of the most famous scientists in my opinion. I know there are a few others that arguably should have made the list, but I settled with these ten in the end. Hope you enjoy.

1. Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955)  was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, who had a profound effect on physics and how it is perceived.

Einstein is considered by many to be the father of modern physics and one of the most respected intellects in human history.
Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works. His most well-known publications include: general and special relativity, photoelectric effect, mass-energy equivalence, theory of Brownian motion, the Einstein field equations, Bose-Einstein statistics, unified field theory, and EPR equation.
He has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, Matteucci Medal, Copley Medal, Max Planck Medal, and the Time Person of the Century (1999).

2. Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian, who has been considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived.

His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica is considered to be one of the most important scientific book in human history. He is most well known for Newtonian mechanics, Universal gravitation, Infinitesimal calculus, Optics, Binomial series, Newton’s method, and Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica.

3. Stephen Hawkiing

Stephen William Hawking (born 8 January 1942)  is a British theoretical physicist and cosmologist, whose scientific books and public appearances have made him an international academic celebrity.

Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009. He then became research director at the university’s Centre for Theoretical Cosmology.
Unfortunately, Hawking is bound to a wheelchair as he has a motor neurone disease that is related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a condition that has progressed over the years. He is now almost completely paralysed and communicates through a speech generating device.
His main influences were the works published by that of Dikran Tahta and Albert Einstein. He is known for Black holes, Theoretical cosmology, Quantum gravity, and Hawking radiation.
Hawking has been awarded the Albert Einstein Award, Wolf Prize, Prince of Asturias Award, Copley Medal, and the Presidential Medal of freedom.

4. Edwin Hubble
Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer who confirmed the existence of galaxies other than the Milky Way.
As a younger man, he was more noted for his athletic abilities than for his intellect, even though he achieved good grades in all his subjects apart from spelling. 
He’s known for Hubble’s law, Redshift, and the Hubble sequence.
His notable awards are: Bruce Medal, Franklin Medal, Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, and Legion of Merit.

5. Niels Bohr
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962 was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics.
He was part of the British team of physicists working on the Manhattan Project. Bohr married Margrethe Nørlund in 1912, and one of their sons, Aage Bohr, grew up to be a physicist who in 1975 also received the Nobel Prize.
Bohr is considered to be one of the most influential scientists of the 20th century. Bohr published his model of an atomic structure in 1913. He introduced the theory of electrons travelling in orbits around the atom’s nucleus, the chemical properties of each element being largely determined by the number of electrons in the outer orbits of its atoms.
Bohr also introduced the idea that an electron could drop from a higher-energy orbit to a lower one, in the process emitting a photon of discrete energy. This became a basis for quantum theory.
He’s known for Copenhagen interpretation, Complementarity, Bohr model, Sommerfeld–Bohr theory, BKS theory, Bohr-Einstein debates, and the Bohr magneton.
He has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics and the Franklin Medal.

6. Richard Feynman
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918–February 15, 1988) was an American physicist.
He developed a widely used pictorial representation scheme for the mathematical expressions governing the behaviour of subatomic particles, which later became known as Feynman diagrams. 
During his lifetime, Feynman became one of the best-known scientists in the world. He assisted in the development of the atomic bomb and was a member of the panel that investigated the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.
He is known for the Feynman diagrams, Feynman point, Feynman–Kac formula, Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory, Bethe–Feynman formula, Feynman sprinkler, Feynman Long Division Puzzles, Hellmann–Feynman theorem, Feynman slash notation, Feynman parametrization, Sticky bead argument, One-electron universe, and Quantum cellular automata.
He has been awarded the Albert Einstein Award, E. O. Lawrence Award, Nobel Prize in Physics, Oersted Medal, and the National Medal of Science.

7. Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (12 August 1887 – 4 January 1961) was an Austrian born physicist and theoretical biologist who was one of the fathers of quantum mechanics, and is celebrated for a number of important contributions to physics.
His mother was half Austrian and half English; His father was Catholic and his mother was Lutheran. Schrödinger suffered from tuberculosis and several times in the 1920s stayed at a sanatorium in Arosa. It was there that he discovered his wave equation.
He is known for the Schrödinger equation, Schrödinger’s cat, Schrödinger method, Schrödinger functional, Schrödinger picture, SchrödingerSchrödinger field, Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation, Schrödinger logics, and the Cat state.
He was awarded the Nobel prize in physics.

8. Ludwig Boltzmann
Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (February 20, 1844 – September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics.
In 1869 at age 25 he was appointed full Professor of Mathematical Physics at the University of Graz in the province of Styria.
He spent 14 happy years in Graz and it was there that he developed his statistical concept of nature. In 1885 he became a member of the Imperial Austrian Academy of Sciences and in 1887 he became the President of the University of Graz.
He is known for: Boltzmann’s constant, Boltzmann equation, H-theorem, Boltzmann distribution, and the Stefan–Boltzmann law.

9. Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947) was a German physicist who discovered quantum physics.

Planck’s great-grandfather and grandfather were both theology professors in Göttingen, his father was a law professor in Kiel and Munich; and his paternal uncle was a judge.
Planck was a gifted musician and played three instruments (piano, organ and cello), as-well as composing and taking singing lessons. Despite his musical talent, Planck decided to go into physics instead.
He became good a good friend with Albert Einstein and the two often played music together.
Planck is known for: Planck constant, Planck postulate, and Planck’s law of black body radiation.
He’s been awarded the prestigious Nobel Prize in Physics. 

10. Werner Heisenberg
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist who is best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory. 

Heisenberg, along with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, set forth the matrix formulation of quantum mechanics in 1925.

Heisenberg attended the Bohr Festival in June 1922 in which Bohr was a guest lecturer and gave a series of comprehensive lectures on quantum atomic physics. There, 

Heisenberg met Bohr for the first time, and it had a profound and continuing effect on him.

He is known for Uncertainty Principle, Heisenberg’s microscope, Matrix mechanics, Kramers-Heisenberg formula, Heisenberg group, Isospin, and Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics and the Max Planck Medal.
 
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World most famous Sky Scrapers

 

1. Empire State Building, New York, United States

Height: 437 meters
Cost to build: US$41 million
Completion date: May 1, 1931
Fast fact: The Empire State Building took only one year and 45 days to build, or 7 million man-hours, a record to this day for a skyscraper of its height.
“With the passing of the World Trade Center, it became even more entrenched in the hearts and souls of New Yorkers and the rest of the world.” — Michael Greene.
JAY-Z didn’t pick his song names out of nowhere. The 443-meter Empire State Building is the icon of New York, where “dreams are made” and King Kong went berserk.
Built during the Great Depression, this gigantic building has been an American symbol for 70 years, providing a solid anchor through the ebbs and flows of its economy. It is also the longest holder of the “World’s Tallest Building” title, from 1931 to 1972.
The building, whose exterior lighting changes regularly to promote charitable causes and mark significant events, is one of the few skyscrapers that offers wedding packages at its observatory.

But its light gray curtain of glass blends in perfectly with the notoriously misty skyline of Beijing, earning this one-of-a-kind skyscraper two awards at the annual.

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2. China Central Television Headquarters, Beijing, China

Height: 234 meters
Cost to build: US$600 million
Completion date: January 2008
Fast fact: A building in the complex was badly damaged during a fire that was ignited by fireworks.
Reportedly nicknamed “big boxer shorts” by a Beijing taxi driver, the CCTV headquarters look like no other building.
Comprising a continuous loop of six horizontal and vertical sections, the design represents a running stream of “qi” in the building.
Given China’s monumental economic ambitions, the 234-meter-high structure is considered on the short side for a skyscraper.

But its light gray curtain of glass blends in perfectly with the notoriously misty skyline of Beijing, earning this one-of-a-kind skyscraper two awards at the annual.


3. Commerzbank Headquarters, Frankfurt, Germany

Height: 300.1 meters
Cost to build:  US$414 million
Completion date: 1997
Fast fact: There is no observatory or open area on top. The public can only get as far as the plaza level.
With the aid of a 50-meter mast, the Commerzbank Headquarters in Frankfurt soars past the 300-meter mark by a whopping 10 centimeters. The building is the tallest in Germany and second-tallest in Europe, for now. It will be surpassed by the Shard London Bridge in 2012.
Swimming against the tide marks it out for this list.
The Commerzbank Headquarters was the world’s first so-called ecological skyscraper, making use of natural systems of lighting and ventilation and reducing energy consumption as early as 1997.
In contrast to Europe’s conspicuous lack of grand skyscrapers,
this building celebrates its rise above low-rise offices, making it not just a symbol of Frankfurt’s economy, but of Germany’s attempts to pioneer eco-architectural design.

4. Elephant Tower, Bangkok, Thailand

Height: 102 meters
Cost to build: NA
Completion date: 1997
Fast fact: The building contains a swimming pool.
If there’s one thing besides a smile that can represent Thai people, it’s elephants.
From pretty much anywhere in this dusty district in northern Bangkok, you can catch a glimpse of this 102-meter-high jumbo building, with its eyes and tusks towering above a busy junction.
As well as highlighting the importance of elephants in Thai culture and history, the building also nods toward Thailand’s coming-of-age, with high-tech offices, a shopping plaza and a floor of luxury residential suites.
This would never make a list of the most beautiful skyscrapers, but there’s no denying Elephant Tower’s place in local hearts. Plus, you just can’t keep your eyes off it.

5. Bitexco Financial Tower, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Height: 262 meters
Cost to build: US$220 million
Completion date: October 31, 2010
Fast fact: With speeds of seven meters per second, the elevators in the building are the third-fastest in the world.
The Bitexco Financial Tower may no longer be the tallest building in Vietnam, but it still defines Ho Chi Minh City’s skyline.
Designed to represent Vietnam’s national flower, the lotus, this 262-meter skyscraper is meant to characterize the beauty and growth of the city below.
It’s ambitious, and it’s in your face, much like its host city.
There’s an observation deck on the 47th floor, where visitors get a 360-degree view of HCMC, and a helipad on the 50th level, creating one of the structures most salient features.

6. Transamerica Pyramid, San Francisco, United States

Height: 260 meters
Cost to build: US$32 million
Completion date: 1972
Fast fact: When The Pyramid’s three years of construction began in 1969, signs around the site proclaimed it “a San Francisco landmark since 1972.”
Around San Franciso’s picturesque wooden Victorian houses, this skyscraper climbs like a rocket. Although not comparable to the futuristic designs of newer skyscrapers, the 260-meter pyramid has been the city’s most recognizable building for decades.
The structure has an unconventional tapered design — imitating a tree trunk — that allows natural light and fresh air to trickle down to adjacent streets.
Without obstructing much of the tranquil neighborhood, this slender style, together with the earthquake-safe design, allowed the building to get around strict building laws in the city, reaching a height unfamiliar to San Francisco

7. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong

Height: 305 meters
Cost to build: NA
Completion date: May 1990
Fast fact: The building was criticized by feng shui masters for its sharp corners, which in feng shui terms means it will bring bad luck to its neighbors (notably the HSBC main building). Pei had to modify the design before construction began.
The Bank of China Tower was the first skyscraper outside of the United States to surpass the 305-meter mark and was once the tallest building in Hong Kong.
Reflecting lights like a glittering crystal, the unusual crystalline-like structure is inspired by the bamboo plant, mimicking its strength, vitality and growth.
It has for years been one of the most distinctive buildings in Hong Kong, out-shining its taller neighbors.
Together with Two IFC, the tower is part of the city’s Symphony of Light show, illuminating Hong Kong’s harbor every night at 8 p.m.

8. Kingdom Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Cost to build: US$458 million
Completion date: 2002
Fast fact: Ladies Kingdom claims to have “almost every thing a female would need” — even a ladies’ bank and a ladies’ mosque.
Some observers have drawn a connection between the Kingdom Center and a shovel stuck in the sand; a somewhat misplaced comparison for the tallest building in Saudi Arabia.
But get this: Riyadh building code forbids any building with more than 30 usable floors, but doesn’t impose height restrictions. So, thanks to the big void in the new Saudi Arabian icon, only 30 floors are used for normal purposes.
It features an area offering a refreshing break from usual social norms in the region, with a shopping mall that includes a female-only “Ladies Kingdom,” an entire floor designated for women to shop freely without needing to be covered.

9. Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



Height: 452 meters

Cost to build: US$1.6 billion
Completion date: June 1996
Fast fact: National poet laureate A. Samad Said was commissioned to write a poem for the towers, which can be read
“These towers changed the skyline of Kuala Lumpur, and jumped the existing scale there dramatically. Petronas was also an attempt to relate a tall building to a country’s culture and history, and to make a statement about its power and desire to replace Hong Kong as a financial capital.” — A. Eugene Kohn.
Employing the repetitive geometric principle of Muslim architecture and Islamic arabesques, architect César Pelli wanted the Petronas Twin Towers to exude Malaysian culture and heritage; and he succeeded.
Although nothing in Kuala Lumpur is nearly as colossal, the world’s tallest twin towers somehow feel at home amid the capital’s otherwise unassuming cityscape.
Completed in 1996, the sky bridge that connects the two towers symbolizes “a gateway to the future” and Malaysia’s sky-high ambition entering the millennium. Since completion, this 451-meter skyscraper has become Malaysia’s unmistakable icon.

10. Tokyo Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower, Tokyo, Japan

Height: 204 meters
Cost to build: NA
Completion date: October 2008
Fast fact: It’s the second-tallest educational building in the world, next to the M.V. Lomonosov State University building in Moscow.
The tower is one of the few educational skyscrapers in the world, hosting s
The tower is one of the few educational skyscrapers in the world, hosting schools of fashion, computer science and medicine.
As its name suggests, its exterior resembles the silky home of various larvae.
Students are educated inside the 50-level tower and metaphorically transformed into something bigger and more beautiful, culminating in generations of Tokyoites prepared to give this sprawling city, and its country, focus.
The Cocoon Tower is also a symbol of innovation — soaring above its older and shorter neighboring buildings not just literally, but figuratively

11. Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China

Height: 492 meters
Cost to build: US$1.2 billion
Completion date: August 2008
Fast fact: The square “bottle opener” opening at the top that is designed to reduce stress of wind pressure, and was originally circular. However, Shanghainese citizens and the city’s mayor protested, claiming it was too similar to the rising sun design of the Japanese flag.
Just eight meters shy of the half-kilometer mark, this giant bottle opener overtook Gin Mou Tower in 2008 as the tallest building in China, and is the latest addition to Pudong’s smoggy skyline, signifying the city’s emergence as a global financial hub.
Like many magnificent architectures in China, the Shanghai World Financial Center has a subtle connection to Chinese beliefs: the opening atop represents earth reaching up to the sky, symbolizing an interaction between the two realms.
Originally, this opening was round. The central government forced the change to the current trapezoid, complaining that a circle was too close to Japan’s rising-sun symbol.

12. Hotel & Casino Grand Lisboa, Macau

Completion date: 2008
Fast fact: The tower is inspired by the long plumes of a Brazilian girl’s headdress.
A golden structure designed to combine the visual effects of crystals, fireworks and a Brazilian headdress.
It isn’t particularly beautiful, but who needs beauty when what you’re really after is piles of gamblers’ cash?
Everything linked with money can somehow be intertwined with superstitions in Macau. This, the tallest skyscraper in Macau (261 meters) was built to resemble a bottleneck to avoid the leaking of cash -– a suggestion given by a feng shui master.
All the gold, crystals, fireworks and flowers are symbols of prosperity to guide the money home.
In Macau, known as the Las Vegas of the East, the Hotel & Casino Grand Lisboa is the eminent icon of gaudy profits.

13. Bahrain World Trade Center, Manama, Bahrain

Height: 240 meters
Cost to build: US$150 million
Completion date: 2008
Fast fact: It was the world’s first wind-powered mega-structure.
No doubt the futuristic Bahrain World Trade Center has given the island’s skyline a big, bright slap in the chops. But the maritime connection doesn’t stop at its stunning silhouette.
The two sail-inspired towers that reach vertically more than 240 meters are joined by three giant wind turbines in the middle to harness the power of nature, generating approximately 13 percent of the towers’ total energy needs.
In addition to showing its deep pockets, this emphatically sci-fi building also speaks volumes about Bahrain’s environmental consciousness.

14. Two International Finance Center, Hong Kong

Height: 415 meters
Cost to build: US$2.5 billion
Completion date: August 2008
Fast facts: In “Lara Croft Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life,” Lara Croft leaped off the building. In “The Dark Knight,” Batman leaped from 2IFC to IFC.
Two International Financial Center is the definitive point of Hong Kong’s awe-inspiring skyline and a symbol of its wealth.
Located in the center of Hong Kong’s financial district, this shimmering 415-meter obelisk fits every criterion of a financial powerhouse.
It houses some of the world’s largest financial institutes, it is situated on 8 Finance Street and has 88 floors — the number eight is an auspicious digit in Hong Kong.
The building is topped with a crown that some liken to a beard trimmer.

15. Burj al Arab, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Height: 321 meters
Cost to build: US$650 million
Completion date: December 1999
Fast fact: The hotel is the only seven-star hotel in the world, even though the hotel proclaimed itself so.
Influenced by the shape of the dhow, Burj al Arab isn’t only a popular computer monitor wallpaper; it has also established itself as the distinctive icon of extravagance in Dubai, housing the world’s only self-proclaimed seven-star hotel.
Sitting on a manmade island, the “sailboat” has a private beach and a private curving bridge that connects it to the rest of the city.
More notable, however, is Tiger Wood’s annual tee-off on the 24-meter-wide helipad, where Roger Federer and Andre Agassi also played a tennis match, 300 meters above ground.

16. Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan

Height: 508 meters
Cost to build: US$1.8 billion
Completion date: 2004
Fast fact: The building is designed to resemble a growing bamboo stalk, a symbol of everlasting strength in Chinese culture.
It is the first skyscraper to soar past the half-kilometer mark and it sat at the pinnacle of the skyscraper world from 2004 to 2009.
Taipei 101 can also claim the “world’s fastest passenger elevator” title.
At an ear-popping 1,010 meters per minute, it takes merely 37 seconds to catapult passengers from the fifth floor to the highest point in Taiwan.
Ritualistically, Taipei 101 is supported by the lucky number eight in many aspects of its design, including the number of sections and super columns. It also incorporates the form of a Chinese pagoda and evokes the shape of sprouting bamboo flowers.

17. Torre Agbar, Barcelona, Spain




Height: 142 meters

Cost to build: US$130 million
Completion date: 2004
Fast fact: The design is inspired by the power and lightness of a geyser shooting up, touching the skies of Barcelona.
Torre Agbar may have the look a bullet, but it doesn’t have the metallic touch like other skyscrapers. Its design was inspired by the hills of Montserrat, letting it morph quietly into the most visible landmark of the city of blue and red.
The 144-meter-high building has two cylindrical layers. One topped by polished aluminum and the second clear and translucent glass with 40 different colors.
With a total of 4,500 yellow, blue, pink and red lights placed over the facade, the sensation of Barcelona’s skyline helps illuminate the city with floodlights at night, making it the most discernible figure for miles, after Lionel Messi.

18. Burj Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Height: 828 meters
Cost to build: US$1.5 billion
Completion date: January 2009
Fast fact: Not only is this the world’s tallest building, it is also home of the world’s highest mosque, on the 158th floor. The tower is more than twice the height of the Empire State Building in New York.
Size isn’t everything — that’s what the little guys always say.
Standing 828 meters high and weighing half a million tons, Burj Khalifa towers above its city like a giant redwood in a field of daisies.
It has been been the world’s tallest building since 2010.
Gigantic doesn’t begin to describe it.
This “desert flower” stands out comfortably among other skyscrapers and has become the symbol of Dubai’s bling, which often goes hand-in-hand with figures of per capita carbon footprints –- which Dubai also tops.

19. 30 St. Mary Axe, London, England



Height: 180 meters

Cost to build: US$212 million
Completion date: 2003
Fast fact: Despite its curvaceous body, the entire building only has one piece of curved glass in its construction, and that is the lens at the top of the building.
Some say it’s in an egg shape; others call it the London Bullet Building or the Cucumber Building.
In any event, the Gherkin broke London’s tradition of building boring skyscrapers.
Officially named 30 St. Mary Axe, the harlequin-patterned building bulges out slightly from its base to reach a maximum height of 180 meters. It stands at the center of London’s financial district.
Together with its energy-efficient designs, its aerodynamic shape also minimizes wind loads and doesn’t deflect wind to the ground, improving wind conditions in the vicinity, winning London pedestrians’ hearts.

Height: 190 meters
Cost to build: US$80 million
Completion date: 2005
Fast fact: Tourists are not allowed in the building because it houses apartments and offices.
By crossing the boundaries of strict geometry and modern technologies in architecture, he came up with a masterpiece that has more than a twist in its tail.
The spine-like skyscraper turns a full 90 degrees from top to bottom. In order to follow the rotation, the windows are leaning either inwards or outward zero to seven degrees.
No other skyscraper has achieved anything as extreme.
In line with Sweden’s low-emission promise, this tallest residential building in the country is also supplied with 100 percent locally produced renewable energy — a true symbol of modern Sweden.

WORLD’S HIGHEST MOUNTAINS

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Mountaineering or mountain climbing is one of the most exhilarating and daring sports that puts one’s strength and stamina into a great test. Every climber dreams of Stepping his/her foot at the top of the world’s highest mountains which seldom costs his/her life. Nevertheless, that doesn’t cease the climbers from what they are aiming, rather they move forward with more passion and alacrity.
This perilous sport demands highest degree of skills which is impossible to attain without proper training. Those who want to step into this sport, need to attend proper training from the experienced climbers. Acquiring adequate knowledge and skills is extremely important before attempting to summit any mountain, in order to avoid any danger and for better outcomes with lesser risk or else, it could result in some tragedy. This post not only provides the information on world Top 7 mountains to those who want to pursue their career as a climber but also to them who are interested in becoming acquaint with these gigantic geographic structures.
MOUNT EVEREST

Top-7: Mountain Rank: #1
Other Names: Sagarmatha /Chomolungma
Mountain Height (meters): 8,848 m
Height (feet): 29,029 ft
Range:  Himalayas
Coordinates:  27°59′17″N 86°55′31″E
First ascent: 1953
Country: Nepal
K2
Top-7: Mountain Rank: #2
Other Names: / Chagori / Godwin Austen
Mountain Height (m): 8,611
Height (ft): 28,251
Range:  Karakoram
Coordinates:  35°52′53″N 76°30′48″E
First ascent:  1954
Country: Pakistan
KANGCHENJUNGA
Top-7: Mountain Rank: #3
Other Names: Sewalungma
Mountain Height (m): 8,586
Height (ft): 28,169
Range:  Himalayas
Coordinates:  27°42′12″N 88°08′51″E
First ascent: 1955
Country: India/Nepal
LHOTSE

Top-7: Mountain Rank: #4
Other Names: Luòzǐ Fēng, ho rtse
Mountain Height (m): 8,516
Height (ft): 27,940
Range:  Himalayas
Coordinates:  27°57′42″N 86°55′59″E
First ascent: 1956
Country: Nepal/Tibet
MAKALU                  
                  
Top-7: Mountain Rank: #5
Other Names:  Makalungma, Makaru
Mountain Height (m): 8,485
Height (ft): 27,838
Range:  Himalayas
Coordinates:  27°53′23″N 87°5′20″E
First ascent: 1955
Country: Nepal/Tibet
CHO OYU                                        
Top-7: Mountain Rank: #6
Other Names: Qowowuyag, jo bo dbu yag
Mountain Height (m): 8,188
Height (ft): 26,864
Range:  Himalayas
Coordinates:  28°05′39″N 86°39′39″E
First ascent: 1954
Country: Nepal/Tibet
DHAULAGIRI I                               
Top-7: Mountain Rank: #7
Other Names: None
Mountain Height (m): 8,167
Height (ft): 26,795       
Range:  Himalayas
Coordinates:  28°41′48″N 83°29′35″E
First ascent: 1960
Country:  Nepal

10 most dangerous cities in the world

A considerably high crime rate is observed in few cities of every country. The worst part is few of these cities are renowned tourist spots preferred by travelers around the globe. Few travelers cannot resist themselves from visiting those places despite of the high crime rate. If you are planning to visit these places then you have to be well aware of the measures to be taken to safeguard yourself. Here is a list of 10 most dangerous cities in the world in 2012.
1.  Caracas: This city of Venezuela is a place with little control of police over the crimes taking place in the city. Drug trafficking is very high in Caracas because of its geological positioning. The place is not safe even in broad daylight due to uncontrollable robbery. Even the locals are scared of robbery and evil drugs taking the lives of their grownups. The crime rate is at an alarming stage and strict measures are to be taken by the local government to make it a safe place to live.

 2.    Mogadishu: This chaotic city is the capital of Somalia. Even after two decades of civil war that has wrecked the city as well as the entire country there is no political stability. The aggressive local militias, frequent political violence make it one of the unsafe places to live on earth. This city of Somalia with huge numbers of bandits has no specific law to take action against the crimes. Majority of the locals vacated the city in search of safety for their lives. There is not much left in the city except the broken remaining of the buildings. However, the violence continues to be very high in Mogadishu.


3. Rio de Janeiro: This beautiful city with incredible beaches and fantastic landscapes is in Brazil and is no exception for high crime rate. Due to poor economic status of nearly 20% of the population the city is filled with slum areas (favela)  that are unsafe to visit. The city is also a center for drug trafficking. Travelers can enjoy the city safely by keeping themselves away from high mountainous regions and slum areas. It is highly recommended to not roam in the city at nights. Police force in Rio de Janeiro is competent enough to offer protection but bribery is highly observed.

4. Grozny, Chechnya, Russia: The conflict between Chechnya and Russia that was started in 1990 continued for about a decade and has torn down the city completely. After thousands of deaths, the conflict ended in 2006. However, the city filled with dynamites and missiles continues to be the most unsafe place in the world. Even now in 2012 the place continues to be home for both insignificant and organized crimes. Western tourists are highly recommended to stay away from this place due to increased hostage crimes.

5.  Ciudad Juarez: This is city of Mexico is the worst victim of drug trafficking. The drug business groups in Mexico are notoriously dangerous and they do not hesitate to do anything just to sale their drugs. The powerful drug trafficking groups are unstoppable and in fact they rule the city. Even the police are found to be corrupt. Though the place is not included in the war zones it is considered as highly dangerous place because of high crimes related to drug trafficking. The impotent local government and the continuous efforts of United States in regulating the drug crimes are paving the way for illegal drug sales.

6.  Bogota, Colombia: One other dangerous city of the world that is victim of drug trade. Apart from the drug trade the city is suffering from political indifferences. The revolutionary extremist groups working against the Colombian government contributed their part in making the place dangerous. However, the political indifference started to calm down since 90’s. Tourists are advised to reside in northern parts of the city which are comparatively safer than southern parts. Never wander in regions that fall in outskirts of the city and are away from safer regions. You can enjoy the beautiful tourist spots of Bogota by following the mentioned safety measures.

7. Baghdad, Iraq: Baghdad is another city hit by unstable government. Different political groups existing in the city adopt their own ways destroying the city. The sudden invasion by United States in the year 2003 left the city with shambles of wrecked buildings. Invasion has boosted the already existing violence and has made the city an aggressive place uncomfortable to live. Streets were filled with American military and the local aggressive political groups trying to fight back Americans. The political instability, poor infrastructurehas further aggravated violence in this city of Iraq. It is no more a pleasant place to live or visit.


8.  Guatemala: The corrupt government and police force paved way for rise in criminal activity in Guatemala City of Guatemala. Economical indifferences between the rich and poor are very high and this is the cause for robbery and dreadful violence in the city. The corrupt government and increased violence is a making this gorgeous city with beautiful landscapes and huge buildings an unsafe place for the tourists. Corruption can be seen in every street of the city.


9.  San Pedro Sula: This city in Honduras is renowned for robbery and man slaughtering. Especially, tourists should be very careful while walking in the streets of San Pedro Sula as they end-up to be the major victims of crime in the city. In fact, highly dangerous places such as Iraq and Afghanistan stand next to this city in violence. It is common for the locals to carry a weapon along with them for self protection. Even small disputes end up with huge violence in the streets. Tourists should be highly cautious and find a safer place to live.


10. Cape Town, South Africa This is the most favored tourist attraction by travelers around the world. You can find n number of things to do in this wonderful city. On the dark side of the city is violence. Never try walking in restricted areas in the odd timings of the day else you will be robbed. Huge socioeconomic disparity among various groups of people is the major cause for increased crime rate in Cape Town. Tourists should choose an area that is safe to stay. You have to be extra careful while using an ATM. Always walk in the streets only if they are well lit with people moving around.

Angel Falls

At twice the height of the Empire State building, fifteen times the height of Niagara Falls, Angel Falls is the highest in the world,  with a height of 979 meters (3,212 ft) and a plunge of 807 meters (2,647 ft). The height of the falls is so great, that before getting anywhere near the ground, the water is atomized by the strong winds and turned into mist that can be felt a mile (1.6 km) away.

It is located in the Canaima National Park, an UNESCO World Heritage site in the Gran Sabana region of Bolivar State, Venezuela. It is one of the country’s top tourist destinations despite its isolated location. The base of the falls feeds into the Kerep River (alternatively known as the Rio Gauya), which flows into the Churun River, a tributary of the Carrao River.

The Natives in Venezuela had known about the “Salto Angel” since the beginning of time. Then United States pilot Jimmie Angel was flying over the area in 1935 when he landed on the top of a lone mountain in search of gold. His plane got stuck in the boggy jungle on top of the mountain and he noticed a pretty impressive waterfall plunging thousands of feet down. He wasn’t too happy about the 11 mile hike back to civilization, and his plane remained stuck and rusting upon the mountain as a monument to his discovery. Soon the whole world would know about the falls, which came to be known as Angel Falls, after the pilot who “discovered” them.

World Tallest Buildings

1. Burj Khalifa 

  • Location : Dubai, UAE
  • Height : 828 m(2,717 ft)
  • Floors : 163
  • Built : 2010

2. Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel   

  • Location : Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  • Height : 601m(1,971ft)
  • Floors : 120
  • Built : 2012

3. Taipei 101

  • Location : Taipei, Taiwan
  • Height : 509m(1,670ft)
  • Floors : 101
  • Built : 2004

4. Shanghai World Financial Center

  • Location : Shanghai, China
  • Height : 492m(1,614ft)
  • Floors : 101
  • Built : 2008

5. International Commerce Centre

  • Location : Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Height : 484m(1,588ft)
  • Floors : 118
  • Built : 2010

6. Petronas Tower 1 & Petronas Tower 2

  • Location : Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Height : 452m(1,483ft)
  • Floors : 88
  • Built : 1998

8. Zifeng Tower

  • Location : Nanjing, China
  • Height : 450m(1,476ft)
  • Floors : 89
  • Built : 2010

9. Willis Tower (Formerly Sears Tower)

  • Location : Chicago, USA
  • Height : 442m(1,450ft)
  • Floors : 108
  • Built : 1973

10. Kingkey 100

  • Location : Shenzhen, China
  • Height : 442m(1,449ft) 
  • Floors : 100
  • Built : 2011

    Top 10 List of Most Longest Rivers in the World


    Top 10 List of Most Longest Rivers in the World

    Rivers are one of the most important body of water that are available in our planet today. Even though rivers are not as vast as seas and oceans they are also vital part of our ecosystem. Rivers provide freshwater fishes, crabs, shrimps, clams, and many other healthy foods. River also is a source of drinkable water today.

    Some rivers being converted to dams are the main source of hydroelectric power. These hydroelectric power provides supplies of electricity to towns and cities. Irrigation systems are mainly form with the help of a river that supplies water to those area that needs water.

    Without rivers, oceans and seas will not be healthy. We knew that water cycle is just a continuous process from the rain dropping down water to the rivers and then the rivers flow their water down to the seas and oceans, and oceans and seas salty water are evaporated to the air to once again form the rain and so on and so forth.

    Rivers are also used for refreshment. Some people create a resort near rivers to earn money. With fresh water and fresh air no one can resist to go to that resort to swim and have themselves some vacation and refreshments. Here is the top 10 list of longest rivers that our world have today.

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    TOP 10 LIST OF THE MOST LONGEST RIVERS IN THE WORLD TODAY

    Rivers
    Locations
    Length in kilometers
    Nile river Northeastern Africa 6, 650
    Amazon river South America 6, 400
    Yangtze river Asia 6, 300
    Mississippi river North America 6, 275
    Yenisei river Europe 5, 539
    Yellow river Asia 5, 464
    Ob river Europe 5, 410
    Paraná river South America 4, 880
    Congo river Africa 4, 700
    Amur river Europe 4, 444

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