The word Pakistan is Persian as well as Urdu and it is composed of words taken from our homelands like Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Iran, Sindh, Tukharistan, Afghanistan and Baluchistan and it means the land of pures. Under the constitution of 1956 Pakistan declare itself an ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN.
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born in Jherik of District Thatta on 25th December 1876, Jinnah received his early educationfrom Sindh Madarsat ul Islam Karachi and in 1892 he went to England for higher education at the age of 16 years. In 1893 he joined Lincoln’s Inn to become the youngest Indian to be called to the Bar after three years of joining. In 1913 he joined All India Muslim League until Pakistan’s independence on 14th August 1947 and he served as a Pakistan’s 1st Governor General from 15th August 1947 until His death on 11th September 1948.
As name indicates that Pakistan is Islamic Republic Of Pakistan, Pakistan is Islamic country, about 97 percent of the population is Muslim. Of 97 percent 77 percent are Sunni and 20 percent are Shia Muslims .Hindus, Christians each 1 percent and others also 1 percent.
Pakistan is multilingual country more than 60 languages are speaking in country, Urdu is the national language, English is the official language of Pakistan. Sindhi is provincial language of Sindh .Punjabi is provincial language of Punjab and siraiki is also spoken in larger area of province. Pashto is the provincial language of Khyber Pakhtunkha and Hindiko is also spoken language of province. Balochi is the provincial language of Baluchistan.
It comprises of permanent legislative body with equal representation from all provinces elected by their respective provincial assemblies also from FATA and CAPITAL CITY. Under the constitution Chairman of Senate becomes the President in his absence.
Seats allocated to all Provinces, Fata, and Islamabad. Member serves for parliamentary term that is five years unless they die, resign or assembly is dissolved. 5 percent seats are allocated for minorities, 50+ special seats are reserved for women and women are selected on these seats by their party head.
Judicial system of Pakistan comprises of Supreme Court, Federal Shari’a Court, Provincial High Courts, District Courts, Judicial Magistrate Courts, Executive Magistrate Courts, and Courts of Civil Judges.
The Supreme Court of Pakistan is the highest court, now President appoints the most senior justices as the Chief Justice of Supreme Court by getting power from 18th amendment. TAHE Supreme Court is made up of 17 permanent judges. Cases are also heard in branch registries of the each capital of four provinces Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar and Quetta. Judges of Supreme Court are supervised be Supreme Judicial Council, which may hear the complaints brought against them.
The Pakistan Armed Forces mainly comprises of The Pakistan Army, The Pakistan Air Force, The Pakistan Navy (including marines) along with Paramilitary forces. The Pakistan Army is the 7th largest army of the world. A sense of unity and identity was shown by Pakistan Army in the wars of 1947 and 1965 against India. Pakistan Armed Forced has very close relation with China including development, research so that to enhance military system. Pakistan Air Force also maintains close relation with USA and primarily imports equipment from USA and China.
Pakistan is worlds 6th most populous country and estimated population in 2011 census is round about 187 million people, growth rate comparing to past declining, the population growth rate is 1.6 percent now. Karachi is the most populous city of the country. According to July 2008 estimation Growth Rate is 2.2 percent, Birth rate is 31 births/ 1000, Death rate 8/ 1000, Sex ratio 1.10 males/ female.
Pakistan situated in temperate zone so weather varies from very hot summer to very cold winter, in moon soon heavily rainfall with frequent floods. Pakistan has 4 seasons from December to February it is dry and very cold weather, from March to may dry spring, from June to September rainy summer season (moon soon), October to November retreating moon soon.
Cricket is the most popular game of the country. Pakistan won the cricket world cup 1992 from England held in Australia and New Zealand. In 2009 Pakistan won the ICC T20 World Cup held in England.
Total length of road infrastructure in country is approximately 259,758 km. Various bus services that connect the country are; Daewoo, Niazi, Sky ways, AL-Saadat, Blue Line etc.
Pakistan International Airline world’s best airline operating both domestic and international services, having 24 domestic and 38 international covers. Private sector also compete with the national airline like AIR BLUE and SHAHEEN both airline provide services domestic as well as international covers.
Pakistan Post providing services about 12170 cities of country other than the world wide, other than government private sector also providing the services throughout the country like TCS, LEOPARD, OCS, DHL etc.
PTCL providing the services throughout the country via landline and wireless, total number of connections is 5,052,000. Total number of mobile connection in country is 10,542,641. Private sector also contributing telecommunication services is WATEEN, WORLD CALL, U FONE, MOBILINK, WARID, ZONG, and TELENOR.
Islamabad is the capital city of Pakistan, 10th largest city of Pakistan. Islamabad is located on back drop of Margalla Hills and in the north of Potohar Plateau of country. Margalla Pass is the gateway between Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The city came into life on 26 October 1966 and it is well- planned and organized divided into sectors and zones and it is the Gamma city of the world.
The city is home to Faisal Mosque; it is the largest mosque of the country as well as of south Asia and 6th largest mosque in the world.
This garden spreads about 20, 360 sq meters and it is very much famous for roses. It has 250 different varieties of roses as well as different varieties of jasmine. Flower shows are occasionally held here in the spring season.
Shakarparian hills situates near zero point area, height of hills is 6009 meters. Its terraced garden offers pleasant sweeping vistas of Margalla and Muree hills, Rawal Lake, Rawalpindi and Islamabad.
Rawal lake is artificial manmade lake covers an area of 8.8 sq km that fulfill the needs of cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The terraced garden and lake are ideal for fishing, boating and picnic.
In Urdu and in Persian it means in the lap of mountains, it is about 3000ft from sea level and 1000ft higher than city, it is the midpoint for visitors for the Pir Sohawa which is situated at the top of Margalla Hills. Place is heaven on the earth for birds more than 70 different types of bird are seen during year. Monkeys are commonly seen during the season of winter.
Pakistani food is famous for the taste and flavor it is not as spicy as Indian foods. Spices are used to influence the taste not to disguise original flavor of food. Taste varies from region to region but not so much difference Pakistani food reflects the Mughal influence.
Siachen Glacier, it is world’s toughest glacier here Pakistan army defending and guarding, most of the time temperature is -55 Celsius. Its length is 75km.
Pakistan is the home of several natural and people made lake. MANCHAR LAKE that is in sindh province it is the largest lake in south asia and it’s length is about 100 square miles. Pakistan also has world’s 25th highest lake that is RUSH LAKE that is in GILGIT BALTSTAN. Almost Pakistan has 31 lakes in different parts of country.
Pakistan is agricultural country and agriculture depends on water and for good crop water should be provided timely so Pakistan made reservoirs (DAMS). Pakistan possess three main DAMS namely: TARBELADAM, MANGLA, WARASK for the purpose of electricity and irrigation.