Pakistan History and Introduction

PAKISTAN


INTRODUCTION

The word Pakistan is Persian as well as Urdu and it is composed of words taken from our homelands like Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Iran, Sindh, Tukharistan, Afghanistan and Baluchistan and it means the land of pures. Under the constitution of 1956 Pakistan declare itself an ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN.

After prolong struggle and a lot of sacrifices under the leadership of QUAID-e-AZAM MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH Pakistan came into being on the world map on 14th August 1947 and it was 27th of Ramadan. Pakistan is situated in south asia and it is bounded in east with India (1280 KM) and China (520 KM) in far northeast, in west Afghanistan (2250 KM) and Iran (800 KM) and it has a 1,046 km coast line along the Arabian Sea and Gulf Of Oman in south .Strategically Pakistan is situated between the important regions of South Asia, Central Asia and Middle East. The total boundary length is 6774 km. Pakistan has an area of 803,940 sq km.
The regions forming Pakistan remain under various cultural civilization like; the Indus Valley Civilization (c, 2500-1700BC) And Mughal empire and in 1857 British Empire and in 1947 Pakistan become independent state of the world.
FOUNDER OF PAKISTAN

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born in Jherik of District Thatta on 25th December 1876, Jinnah received his early education from Sindh Madarsat ul Islam Karachi and in 1892 he went to England for higher education at the age of 16 years. In 1893 he joined Lincoln’s Inn to become the youngest Indian to be called to the Bar after three years of joining. In 1913 he joined All India Muslim League until Pakistan’s independence on 14th August 1947 and he served as a Pakistan’s 1st Governor General from 15th August 1947 until His death on 11th September 1948.

RELIGION

As name indicates that Pakistan is Islamic Republic Of Pakistan, Pakistan is Islamic country, about 97 percent of the population is Muslim. Of 97 percent 77 percent are Sunni and 20 percent are Shia Muslims .Hindus, Christians each 1 percent and others also 1 percent.

LANGUAGES

Pakistan is multilingual country more than 60 languages are speaking in country, Urdu is the national language, English is the official language of Pakistan. Sindhi is provincial language of Sindh .Punjabi is provincial language of Punjab and siraiki is also spoken in larger area of province. Pashto is the provincial language of Khyber Pakhtunkha and Hindiko is also spoken language of province. Balochi is the provincial language of Baluchistan.

POLITICAL SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN
 EXECUTIVE BRANCH
As religion of Pakistan is Islam, President must be Muslim elected for five years term by Electoral College consisting of members of   National, Senate and four Provincial assemblies. While Prime Minister is selected by only national assembly,the President eligible for re-election. The President may resign or be impeached and may be removed from office due to incapacity or misconduct by the vote of two third majority. The President generally acts on the advice of the Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister is elected by Electoral College of national assembly for the term of five years; Prime Minister is the head of the government.
MAIN OFFICE HOLDERS
1. President                  Asif Ali Zardari (HEAD OF THE COUNTRY).
2. Prime Minister       Yousaf Raza Gillani (HEAD OF THE GOVERNMENT).
LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
It is composed of SENATE ( upper house),  NATIONAL ASSEMBLY  ( lower house), according to constitution President, Senate , National Assembly together make up body known as MAJLIS-I-SHOORA.
SENATE

It comprises of permanent legislative body with equal representation from all provinces elected by their respective provincial assemblies also from FATA and CAPITAL CITY. Under the constitution Chairman of Senate becomes the President in his absence.

NATIONAL ASSEMBLY

Seats allocated to all Provinces, Fata, and Islamabad. Member serves for parliamentary term that is five years unless they die, resign or assembly is dissolved. 5 percent seats are allocated for minorities, 50+ special seats are reserved for women and women are selected on these seats by their party head.

ADMINSTRATIVE DIVISIONS
Pakistan is federal parliamentary republic comprises of four provinces and four federal territories. The Government Of Pakistan exercise de facto jurisdiction over the western parts of disputed Kashmir region separated as two political entities as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan.

NAME OF PROVINCES

1. SIND
2. PUNJAB

3. KHYBER PAKHTUNKHA
4. BALOCHISTAN
JUDICIAL SYSTEM

Judicial system of Pakistan comprises of Supreme Court, Federal Shari’a Court, Provincial High Courts, District Courts, Judicial Magistrate Courts, Executive Magistrate Courts, and Courts of Civil Judges.

The Supreme Court of Pakistan is the highest court, now President appoints the most senior justices as the Chief Justice of Supreme Court by getting power from 18th amendment. TAHE Supreme Court is made up of 17 permanent judges. Cases are also heard in branch registries of the each capital of four provinces Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar and Quetta. Judges of Supreme Court are supervised be Supreme Judicial Council, which may hear the complaints brought against them.

Federal Sharia’t Court was establishing in 1980 to scrutinize laws in the country which are against Islamic Values. Court comprises of 8 Muslim judges including the Chief Justice. These Judges are appointed by President after the decision Judicial Committee consisting of Chief Justice of Pakistan and Chief Justice of Federal Sharia’t Court. Out of 8 Judges 3  are required to be Ulema / Islamic Scholar who all will be well versed in Islamic law. Duration is for 3 years which may be extended by President.
There is High Court in each Capital City of Province and in Capital City of Pakistan (Islamabad). Justices of the High Court are appointed by the President after conferring with the Chief Justice of Pakistan and Chief Justice of respected Courts.
District courts are present in every district of Province and have criminal as well as civil jurisdiction. Each town and city now has Additional District and Session Judges which possess the judicial power under its jurisdiction. When hearing criminal cases it is called Session Court and when hears civil cases than becomes the District Court.
PAKISTAN ARMED FORCES

The Pakistan Armed Forces mainly comprises of The Pakistan Army, The Pakistan Air Force, The Pakistan Navy (including marines) along with Paramilitary forces. The Pakistan Army is the 7th largest army of the world. A sense of unity and identity was shown by Pakistan Army in the wars of 1947 and 1965 against India. Pakistan Armed Forced has very close relation with China including development, research so that to enhance military system. Pakistan Air Force also maintains close relation with USA and primarily imports equipment from USA and China.

Pakistan Armed Forces are the largest contributors of UN peacekeeping mission with more than 10,000 troops and observers serving in current mission. Other foreign deployments have consisted of Pakistan military personnel as advisers in African and Arab countries.

DEMOGRAPHICS OF PAKISTAN

Pakistan is worlds 6th most populous country and estimated population in 2011 census is round about 187 million people, growth rate comparing to past declining, the population growth rate is 1.6 percent now. Karachi is the most populous city of the country. According to July 2008 estimation Growth Rate is 2.2 percent, Birth rate is 31 births/ 1000, Death rate 8/ 1000, Sex ratio 1.10 males/ female.

The population comprises as Panjabi’s 44 percent, Pashtu’s 15.50 percent, Sindhi’s 14 percent, Seraiki’s 11 percent, muhajir’s 8 percent, Baloch’s  4 percent and others 3.5 percent.
CLIMATE

Pakistan situated in temperate zone so weather varies from very hot summer to very cold winter, in moon soon heavily rainfall with frequent floods. Pakistan has 4 seasons from December to February it is dry and very cold weather, from March to may dry spring, from June to September rainy summer season (moon soon), October to November retreating moon soon.

SPORTS
Hockey is the national game of Pakistan .In Hockey Pakistan won the Olympics 1960, 1968, 1984, World Cup 1971, 1978, 1982, 1994, Champions Trophy 1978, 1980, 1994.In Hockey we have over all 23 titles.                

Cricket is the most popular game of the country. Pakistan won the cricket world cup 1992 from England held  in Australia and New Zealand. In 2009 Pakistan won the ICC T20 World Cup held in England.

Squash is also played in Pakistan. JAHANGIR KHAN, JANSHAIR KHAN both world class squash player have won the World Open 14 times, British Open 30 times.
Snooker we are the world cup winner. Aisam-ul-Haq  shining star in tennis.
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS
Country is connected by bus services, by train and by air.    
               
ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE

Total length of road infrastructure in country is approximately 259,758 km. Various bus services that connect the country are; Daewoo, Niazi, Sky ways, AL-Saadat, Blue Line etc.

RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE

Total length of railway track in country is approximately 7,791km operating throughout the country along with 781 stations.

AIR INFRASTRUCTURE

Pakistan International Airline world’s best airline operating both domestic and international services, having 24 domestic and 38 international covers. Private sector also compete with the national airline like AIR BLUE and SHAHEEN both airline provide services domestic as well as international covers.

COMMUNICATIONS (COURIER AND TELE)
COURIER SERVICES

Pakistan Post  providing services about 12170 cities of country other than the world wide, other than government private sector also providing the services throughout the country like TCS, LEOPARD, OCS, DHL etc.

TELE COMMUNICATIONS

PTCL providing the services throughout the country via landline and wireless, total number of connections is 5,052,000. Total number of mobile connection in country is 10,542,641. Private sector also contributing telecommunication services is WATEEN, WORLD CALL, U FONE, MOBILINK, WARID, ZONG, and TELENOR.

 ISLAMABAD (CAPITAL CITY)

Islamabad is the capital city of Pakistan, 10th largest city of Pakistan. Islamabad is located on back drop of Margalla Hills and in the north of Potohar Plateau of country. Margalla Pass is the gateway between Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The city came into life on 26 October 1966 and it is well- planned and organized divided into sectors and zones and it is the Gamma city of the world.

VISITING PLACES IN ISLAMABAD
FAISAL MOSQUE

The city is home to Faisal Mosque; it is the largest mosque of the country as well as of south Asia and 6th largest mosque in the world.

ROSE AND JASMINE GARDEN

This garden spreads about 20, 360 sq meters and it is very much famous for roses. It has 250 different varieties of roses as well as different varieties of jasmine. Flower shows are occasionally held here in the spring season.

SHAKAR PARIAN HILLS

Shakarparian hills situates near zero point area, height of hills is 6009 meters. Its terraced garden offers pleasant sweeping vistas of Margalla and Muree hills, Rawal Lake, Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

RAWAL LAKE

Rawal lake is artificial manmade lake covers an area of 8.8 sq km that fulfill the needs of cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The terraced garden and lake are ideal for fishing, boating and picnic.

DAMEN-e-KOH

In Urdu and in Persian it means in the lap of mountains, it is about 3000ft from sea level and 1000ft higher than city, it is the midpoint for visitors for the Pir Sohawa which is situated at the top of Margalla Hills. Place is heaven on the earth for birds more than 70 different types of bird are seen during year. Monkeys are commonly seen during the season of winter.

CUISINE
Cuisine of Pakistan is much more influenced from Islam as it is prohibited in religion for consumption of pork and alcohol so Pakistan focuses on other HALAL material.

Pakistani food is famous for the taste and flavor it is not as spicy as Indian foods. Spices are used to influence the taste not to disguise original flavor of food. Taste varies from region to region but not so much difference Pakistani food reflects the Mughal influence.

Breakfast includes eggs, fish, bread, fruits, juice, lassi, tea, qeema  paratha , aalo paratha, fried vegetables, butter. Most of the regions breakfast is heavy because high level of energy is required for physical activity.
Lunch may include meat, chicken, and lentils along with rice or bread, vegetables. Pickle is also used in lunch to enhance the flavor of food. Aaloo gosht is favorite cuisine all over the country and traditional dishes may be used like makkai bread and lassi, sarsoun ka saag.
Dinner is the main food because whole family gathers food depending upon the region lentils, chicken or mutton kurry, shami kabab, kofta or qeema, some people like to have dinner with mango, rice and milk. Dessert is used necessarily in dinner traditional desserts are kheer, ras malai, gajraela, custard etc.
FAMOUS CUISINE  
1.      Chicken Biryani.
2.      Haleem
3.      Nihari Gosht
4.      Achar Gosht
5.      Aalo Gosht
6.      Fried Fish
7.      Seekh Kabab
8.      Siree paaee
9.      Halwa Purri
10.  Lentils
11.  Srsoun ka Saag with Makai bread
12.  Pualao
13.  Nargisy Kabab
14.  Reshmi Kabab
15.  Chicken or Mutton kurry
16.  Sajj
17.   Namkeen Gosht
18.  Dampukh and many more…
PRINT AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA

According to Central Media List:

Dailies are 540, Weeklies are 444, and Fortnight-lies are 55, Monthlies 268 papers.
Government broadcasting 6 TV Channels that include news, drama, sports, regional.
Private sector also contributing and more than 50 channels are broadcasting.
FAMOUS MOUNTAIN PEAKS 

K-2  (worlds 2nd highest peak), Nanga Parbat, Gasherbrum 1, 2, 3, 4.  Rakaposhi  etc.

FAMOUS MOUNTAIN PASS

Khyber Pass, Khurram Pass, Tochi Pass, Gomal Pass, Bolan Pass, Lowari Pass, Khunjrabb Pass.

RIVERS

INDUS RIVER; total length of this river is 2,896km, Pakistan’s agriculture depends on this river.

Other’s are Jhelum (825km), Chenab (1,242km) , Ravi (901km),  Sutlej (1551km).
FAMOUS GLACIER

Siachen Glacier, it is world’s toughest glacier here Pakistan army defending and guarding, most of the time temperature is -55 Celsius. Its length is 75km.

Baltoro it is 65 km in length.
Batura it is 55 km in length.
DESERTS
3 big deserts are in country namely THAR in sindh, CHOLISTAN AND THAL in panjab.
LAKES

Pakistan is the home of several natural and people made lake. MANCHAR LAKE that is in sindh province it is the largest lake in south asia and it’s length is about 100 square miles. Pakistan also has world’s 25th highest lake that is RUSH LAKE that is in GILGIT BALTSTAN. Almost Pakistan has 31 lakes in different parts of country.

DAMS

Pakistan is agricultural country and agriculture depends on water and for good crop water should be provided timely so Pakistan made reservoirs (DAMS). Pakistan  possess three main DAMS namely: TARBELADAM, MANGLA, WARASK for the purpose of electricity and irrigation.

NATIONAL SYMBOLS
   FLOWER                                Jasmine
   TREE                                      Deodar
   ANIMAL                               Markhor
  BIRD                                    Chakor
CURRENCY
Currency of Pakistan is RUPEE.
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