German soldiers move through a devastated French village
The Battle of France was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during World War II. The battle took place from May 10 to June 14, 1940, and consisted of two main operations. In the first, Fall Gelb, German for “Case Yellow,” German armored divisions made their way through the Ardennes to cut off and surround the Allied forces that had moved into Belgium. In the second operation, called Fall Rot in German (Case Red), carried out from June 5, German troops outflanked the Maginot Line to attack the larger territory of France. Although the Allied armies were quickly and thoroughly defeated, the British Expeditionary Force and French Army units were evacuated from Dunkirk in Operation Dynamo.
After the invasion of Poland in September 1939, Hitler had hoped that France and the United Kingdom would accept the new political order and make peace with Germany. This was very important to him as Germany’s stock of raw materials was critically low at that moment and Germany depended on supplies from the Soviet Union such as oil. As this situation was uncomfortable for him for ideological reasons, he made a peace offer to both Western countries on October 6. But he also formulated a new military strategy in case their reply was negative: the Führer-Directive Number 6, which was a plan of invasion of the Low Countries and part of French territory.
Erich Von Manstein considered that, if he involved Heinz Guderian in his plans, the tank general may come up with some role for his Army Corps to play in it, and this might then be used as a decisive argument to relocate XIXth Army Corps from Army Group B to Army Group A, much to the delight of von Rundstedt. At this moment von Manstein’s plan consisted in a move from Sedan to the north, right in the rear of the main Allied forces, to engage them directly from the south in full battle. But Guderian proposed a radical and new plan; the entire Panzerwaffe should be concentrated at Sedan. This concentration of armor should move to the west, to execute a swift, deep, independent strategic penetration towards the English Channel without waiting for the main body of infantry divisions. This would lead to a strategic collapse of the enemy, avoiding high number of German casualties.
VIDEO: BATTLE FOR FRANCE: PART 2
German forces take over the Maginot Line from the French. The Line did not deter the Germans. Their strategy was to bypass it totally.
The battle of France began with Operation Fall Gelb, during the night of May 10, 1939, when Army Group B launched its feint offensive into the Netherlands and Belgium. German paratroopers from the 7th Flieger and 22. Luftlande Infanterie-Division under the command of Kurt Student executed that morning surprise landings at The Hague, on the road to Rotterdam and against the Belgian Fort Eben-Emael in order to facilitate Army Group B’s advance.
BATTLE OF FRANCE: PART 3
Germans at the Maginot Line
With air superiority over the Netherlands, the German 18th Army secured all the bridges in and toward Rotterdam. Although German paratroopers were unable to capture the main airfield, Ypenburg, in time for the airborne infantry to land safely in their Junkers, they captured quickly the auxiliary airfield of Ockenburg. The airfield of Valkenburg was likewise quickly taken. Meanwhile, the 9th Panzer Division reached Rotterdam on May 13. The French 7th Army had failed to block the German advance. That same day in the east, after the Battle of the Grebbeberg in which a Dutch counter-offensive to contain a breach had failed, the Dutch retreated from the Grebbe line to the New Water Line. The Dutch Army surrendered in the evening of May 14, after the Bombing of Rotterdam. The capitulation document was signed on May 15.
The Germans were able to quickly establish air superiority over Belgium, too. But the main approach route of the German 6th Army was blocked by Fort Eben-Emael, which was the largest fortress in Belgium, controlling the junction of the Meuse and the Albert Canal. This Belgian stronghold could stall the German advance and it was of the upmost importance that the main body of Allied troops was engaged before Army Group A would establish bridgeheads at the Sedan. To surmount this obstacle, the Germans resorted to unconventional means in the Battle of Fort Eben-Emael.
Entering the town of Yupern
When the German 3rd and 4th Panzer Divisions was launched over the newly-captured bridges in the direction of the Gembloux Gap, two French Light Mechanized divisions, the 2nd DLM and 3rd DLM were ordered to advance to meet the German armored forces to cover the entrenchment of the French First Army. This armed encounter resulted in the Battle of Hannut, which took place between May 12 and May 13. It was the largest tank battle until then, with about 1,500 armored fighting vehicles taking part. On the second day the Germans were able to penetrate the screen of French tanks.
At the center, the progress of German Army Group A was to be delayed by Belgian motorized infantry and French Mechanized Cavalry divisions which were advancing into the Ardennes. When these forces encountered the large number of German tanks, they were decimated and the remainders quickly gave way and withdrew behind the Meuse. The German advance was only hampered by the sheer number of troops trying to force their way through the poor road network. Kleist’s Panzer Group had more than 41,000 vehicles.
The Großdeutschland Infantry Regiment penetrated through gap in the line of French bunkers in the center of the river bend. The French were routed and their supporting artillery batteries personnel had fled before them. At a cost of a few hundred casualties the German infantry had penetrated up to 5 miles into the French defense belt by midnight. The disorder that had started at Sedan spread throughout the French lines as groups of exhausted French soldiers began to retreat fast. In the morning of May 14, two French tank battalions and a reserve regiment launched a counterattack on the German bridgehead, but it was repulsed at Bulson by the first German Armored Division and anti-tank units which had been rushed across the river from 07:20 on the first pontoon bridge.
Through heavy fighting, Guderian’s motorized infantry dispersed the reinforcements of the newly formed French 6th Army in their assembly area west of Sedan on May 15. This undercut the French 9th Army southern flank by 30 miles, forcing the 102nd Fortress Division to leave its positions. The French Second Army had been seriously mauled and crippled and the French 9th Army began to disintegrate completely. The German 7th Armored Division, under the command of Erwin Rommel, broke free through the crumpling French forces.
Crossing a French river over a broken bridge
In the north the Allied troops retreated to the river Scheldt which exposed their right flank to the 3rd and 4th Panzer Divisions. The Panzer Corps, which had stopped for refueling, started moving again, smashing through the weak British 18th and 23rd Territorial Divisions. The Panzer Corps took Amiens and secured the westernmost bridge over the river Somme at Abbeville. This move isolated the British, French, Dutch, and Belgian forces in the north. That evening, a reconnaissance unit from 2nd Panzer Division reached Noyelles-sur-Mer, 62 miles to the west. From there they were able to see the estuary of the Somme flowing into the English Channel.
Moving through a French village
On May 24, 10th Panzer Division attacked Calais. The British 3rd Royal Tank Regiment, equipped with cruiser tanks, and the 30th Motor Brigade had been hastily landed 24 hours before the Germans attacked. The Siege of Calais lasted for four days and the British defenders were finally overwhelmed and surrendered at approximately 16:00 on May 26. The 1st Panzer Division was ready to attack Dunkirk on May 25, but Hitler ordered it to halt the attack the day before. This was as one of the most controversial decisions of the war. Surrounded, the British, Belgian and French armies launched Operation Dynamo which evacuated Allied troops from Dunkirk, beginning on May 26. About 198,000 British soldiers were evacuated in Operation Dynamo, along with nearly 140,000 French.
An squadron of German Heinkel 111 fly over the sky of Paris
Determined German soldiers march towards Paris
German artillery moves towards Paris
Germans in Alsace
Crossing the River Loire