Saadat Hasan Manto

Saadat Hassan Manto was a controversial Urdu literary person. He was born in Sambrala in Ludhiana the district of Punjab on May 11, 1912. He got his early education at Muslim High School but he remained misfit throughout school years and rapidly losing his motivation for studies, due to this he failed twice in matriculation. His only interest was in reading English novels. Manto began his literary career in young age with an Urdu translation of Victor Hugo’s “The Last Days of a Condemned Man”. At the starting of his career he was deeply influenced by French and Russian realistic writers such as Hugo, Maxim Gorky and Anton Chekhov. In 1930s Manto was associated with Indian Progressive Writers Association.
 This was a left-leaning literary movement that was committed for social uplift and justice in society through literature. In 1931 Manto finally passed school education and got admission in Hindu Sabha College in Amritsar. Manto wrote more than 200 stories a large number of essays, radio plays and film scripts during his whole career. Urdu short stories include “Bu”, “Thanda”, “Ghost”, “Toba Tek Singh” and “Khol Do” were some of his well known stories which were promptly translated into English after his death. Short stories in Urdu language were his greatest contribution towards Indian literature. In India Manto lived in Mumbai but after partition in January 1948 he was migrated to Lahore Pakistan. Manto’s last years in Pakistan were filled with financial problems and poor health. Manto died of due to excessive drinking that led to liver cirrhosis, in the year 1955. His death has left a vacuum in the South Asian Literature genre that is still vacant.
Saddat Hasan Manto’s books include: 1. Manto Ke Afsanay (Stories of Manto)-1940. 2  Siyah Hashiye-1948 (Black Borders). 3 Badshahat Ka Khatimah (The End of Kingship)-1950 4. Khali Botlein (Empty Bottles)-1950 5. Nimrud Ki Khudai (Nimrod The God)-1950 5. Baghair Ijazit (Without Permission)-1955 6. Burquey-1955 7. Phunduney-1955 (Tassles). 8 Sarkandon Ke Peechhey-1955. 9 Shaiytan-1955 10. Shikari Auratein – 1955.



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