Losif Vissarionovich Dzugashvili, the world knew him by Joseph Stalin (1879-1953), who for many years so the dictatorship of the proletariat of the Soviet Union. Born in 1879 in the town of Gori, Georgia in the Caucasus and Georgia were native language, which is far different from Russian. Only recently studied the Russian language, but any way, accent Georgianya never disappear. He grew up in a poor papa. His father was a shoe cobbler menggebuki son likes to get drunk and get twisted. This drunkard father died when she was eleven years old Iosif.
As a young Iosif church school in Gori and after stepping teens he entered theological seminary in Tiflis. However, in 1899 he was kicked out of seminary for allegedly “spreading subversive thoughts.” Then join it with the Marxist underground movement, and in 1903, when there was a split in the party, he sided with the Bolsheviks. Until 1917 he was a member of a persistent and vigorous party, held no less than six times. (However, it is generally not severe punishments that befall him. More than once he tried to escape from custody. Was suspected, there was a brief period where he was really a double agent). At this time that he began to use a pseudonym hearty and fit: Stalin, the man who is made of steel.
Stalin did not hold a crucial role in the revolution of 1917. However, he was very active in the next two years, and in 1922 he became General Secretary of the Communist Party. This position opens wide opportunities for him to exert influence on the course of the administration of the party and is a major factor in the struggle to the summit of power after Lenin’s death.
Obviously, Lenin tended to be his successor Leon Trotsky. In fact, in his political testament Lenin insisted that Stalin was too harsh and should be removed from the position of Secretary General of the party. However, after Lenin nothing in early 1924, Stalin replaced Lenin as he hid testament. Furthermore, Stalin managed to regroup with Grigori Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev, two important members of the politburo, and form a troika or triumvirate. Together they managed to defeat Trotsky and his followers. Then Stalin – a genius in terms of shear-shifting fight in the group – rounded on Zinoviev and Kamenev, and get rid of both of them. After successfully defeating “left-wing opposition” (eg: Trotsky, Kamenev, Zinoviev and his followers) in a power struggle, Stalin continue receiving some of their political proposals. Shortly thereafter, Stalin faced “right wing” of the Communist Party – temporary allies – and beat them anyway. By the early 1930s, he had become sole dictator of the Soviet Union.
From this powerful position, starting in 1934, Stalin launched a series of cleanup. Events that could be considered at least the beginning of the act of cleaning it is a homicide that occurred on December 1, 1934 upon Sergei Kirov, a high Communist official and one of his advisers Stalin. Most likely, Stalin himself who ordered the murder, partly to get rid of the Kirov, but it seems more intended to hide the cleanup steps further.
In the following years, a large number of people who had been a prominent leader of the Communist Party in the 1917 revolution, and those who are under the rule of Lenin, Stalin accused traitor and punished. Many of those who make an open confession before the court of the people. This is the same as for example Thomas Jefferson, when so President, capturing most of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and punish them after they “confessed” before the general court. In 1938, the man who headed the beginning of the liberation measures, Genrikh Yagoda, was also brought to the court, admitted that he had defected and was immediately put to death. Also successor Nicolai Yehzov suffered a similar fate.
Cleaning in the middle of the 1930s extended to the whole body of the Communist Party and the Armed Forces, and the cleaning was not primarily aimed at the problem of anti-Communist and counter-revolutionary. Stalin more successful at killing the Communists than by the police Czar himself. For example, members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party who was elected in 1934, more than two thirds were killed during the next cleaning. Of these measures is clear, the main motive is to open up the possibility of him Stalin establish an independent power in the country. Ironically, when the great-great cleansing is Stalin Soviet Union issued a new constitution called democratic.
Among Stalin’s economic policy was affirmed forced collectivization of agriculture; politically unpopular among farmers and many of them oppose. In the early 1930’s, with the orders of Stalin, millions of peasants were killed or left to die of starvation. And in the end this political work. Economically, the agricultural sector may be spelled backward Soviet Union ever since.
Politics is another Stalin encourage rapid industrialization. This is resolved in part by a series of “Five Year Development Plan” was later widely copied by countries outside the Soviet Union. In addition to various non-efesienan, Stalin’s industrialization policy arguably led to improvements and success. Although the amount of material loss suffered by the Soviet Union in World War 2, the Soviet Union out of the war as the nation’s second-largest industry in the world.
In August 1939 Hitler and Stalin signed a “non-aggression” is famous. Within two weeks, Hitler invaded Poland from the west, and a few weeks later the Soviet Union invaded from the east side, and occupying a portion thereof. At the end of that year the Soviet Union threatened three independent countries: Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia by force of arms. All three surrendered without a fight and put in the territory of the Soviet Union. Similarly, some areas were included in the Romanian territory. Finland against the threat, but in the end the Soviet Union invaded and occupied. The reason for invading the Soviet Union it was because the areas it is necessary to defend against a possible attack from Nazi Germany. However, after the war and the Nazis completely defeated, Stalin did not release its grip on those areas. (The same has been done by his successors).
At the end of the 2nd World War, the Soviet Army occupied large parts of Eastern Europe and Stalin used this opportunity to make those regions Communist state under the influence of the Soviet Union. Marxist governments also appeared in Yugoslavia, but because there was no Russian troops, Yugoslavia was not so Russian satellite. Prevent do not let other countries follow the lead of the Communist Yugoslavia, Stalin took the security measures necessary. Shortly after the end of World War 2, start round “cold war” between the Soviet Union and the United States. Although Truman and leaders of other Western countries have a stake also in the start of the cold war, there can be no doubt that Stalin’s role bigger than them.
Month January 1953 the Soviet government announced that a group of doctors have been arrested on suspicion of the murder of high-ranking officials of Russia. It seems to be a Stalin plan anyway to do next clearing. However, on March 5, 1953, 73-year-old dictator died at the Kremlin Palace, Moscow. Stalin’s body lay beside Lenin Mausoleum on Red Square. However, in subsequent years (especially after Khrushchev’s speech in February 1956), Stalin’s reputation was dragged down by fierce in the Soviet Union. Destalinisasi implemented on a large scale.
Stalin family life was not too happy and successful. He married in 1904, but three years after his wife died of lung disease. Only child – Jacob – Germany captured a World War 2. German exchange bid but the offer was rejected Stalin, and Jacob died in a concentration camp. Stalin married for the second time in 1919. This was his second wife died in 1932. There is news of her suicide, but other rumors say Stalinlah who committed or at least let him get killed. There were two children from this second marriage. His son, an officer in the Russian Air Force, a drunkard, and died 1962. Her daughter, Svetlana, was expelled from the Soviet Union and in 1967 came in the United States.
The main character of Stalin was ruthless. There seemed little sense of compassion and a hard rock like melted. Always in a state of suspicion, paranoia approaching. On the other side, he’s a capable: tenacious, strong-willed, firm stance, arrogant, and had the strength of mind that remarkable.
As a dictator for about a quarter century, the influence of Stalin had penetrated almost to all aspects of life. Judging from the power balance between personal control by the number of people below him, and his reign, Stalin was bisalah considered the thumb of a dictator in history (although debatable Mao Tse Tung also has strong equal weight). In his lifetime, Stalin sent millions of people to the afterlife, or to forced labor camps. (There’s no way of knowing exactly how many people who became victims of the killer broom movement, but may move sekifar twenty million people).
I can not doubt, teramatlah strong short-term effect, but not yet certain how the long term. For example, since the death of Stalin, the iron fetters of the secret police of the Russian population is very much lessen. Although the Soviet Union was still behind the United States in terms of civil liberties and political and other Western democracies, is now no longer a totalitarian state as under Lenin period before being replaced by Stalin.
Satellite countries of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe seems steady, but it is unpredictable how long durability. Many examples in history of how powerful countries established the country “protector” for his safety under the influence. Generally, these countries are not so country subordinate to the infinite future: either he entered fully into the territory of the country that own, or so free yourself. Since no visible signs of the Soviet Union would enter them into the area, it is likely they will become a fully independent country in this century. (On the other hand, the control of the Communist countries like East Germany and Bulgaria will be longer).
Expands the borders of the Soviet Union itself under Stalin’s rule, although it must be remembered the Russian border back and forth continuously for centuries. A clear area of the Soviet Union is now smaller than Russia under the Czar in 1879 when Stalin was born into the world.
Stalin is often credited mengindustrialisir Russia. It was the mention of this is overkill. First, the obvious will to industrialize the Soviet Union itself even without Stalin. Second, although Stalin is driving the acceleration of industrialization figure, he certainly is not the true beginner. (Russian Czar era in 1914 is already a fifth industrial country in the world).
On the other hand, agriculture pengkolektifan Soviet Union would not have been possible without drastic changes made Stalin. In this regard, the political wisdom of Stalin have much effect as follows:
Stalin had an important role in spreading communism throughout the world. This fact contains objective truth. It is thanks to the efforts of Stalin Communism strongly embedded in the satellite countries in Eastern Europe, but in China the extraordinary hard work done Mao Tse Tung is a factor that can not be ignored. Overall I thought surely Marx and Leninlah who have the greatest stake in the spread of Communism throughout the universe. However, even if Stalin was not equal significance than Marx, Lenin and Mao Tse Tung, yet he can not be one of the giants in the history, a genius whose violent history that can not be forgotten just like that.