Shah Faisal of Saudi Arabia فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود‎

King of Saudi Arabia
Reign 2 November 1964 – 25 March 1975
Predecessor King Saud
Successor King Khalid
Spouse Sultana bint Ahmed Al Sudairi
Al Jawhara bint Saud Al Kabir
Haya bint Turki Al Turki
Iffat Al-Thunayan
Issue
Prince Abdullah
Prince Mohammed
Princess Sara
Princess Lolowah
Prince Khalid
Prince Saud
Prince Sa’d
Prince Abdul-Rahman
Prince Bandar
Princess Latifa
Princess Munira
Princess al-Jauhara
Princess al-Anud
Princess Misha’il
Princess Fahda
Princess Nura
Prince Turki
Princess Haifa
House House of Saud
Father King Abdulaziz
Mother Tarfa bint Abduallah bin Abdulateef al Sheekh
Born April 1906
Riyadh, Al Rashid
Died 25 March 1975(1975-03-25) (aged 69)
Saudi Arabia
Burial 26 March 1975
Al Oud cemetery, Riyadh
Religion Islam

Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic: فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعودFayṣal ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Āl Su‘ūd) (April 1906[1] – 25 March 1975) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. As king, he is credited with rescuing the country’s finances and implementing a policy of modernization and reform, while his main foreign policy themes were pan-Islamism, anti-Communism, and pro-Palestinian nationalism.[2][3] He successfully stabilized the kingdom’s bureaucracy and his reign had significant popularity among Saudis.[4] In 1975, he was assassinated by his nephew Faisal bin Musaid.

Early life

Faisal bin Abdulaziz was born in Riyadh in April 1906.[5] He is the third son of Saudi Arabia’s founder, King Abdulaziz.[6] His mother was Tarfa bint Abduallah bin Abdulateef al Sheekh,[7] whom Abdulaziz had married in 1902 after capturing Riyadh. She was from the family of the Al ash-Sheikh, descendants of Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhab. Faisal’s maternal grandfather, Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Latif Al ash-Sheikh, was one of Abdulaziz’s principal religious teachers and advisers.[8]
His mother died when he was quite young, and he was raised by his maternal grandfather, Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Latif Al ash-Sheikh who taught him the Quran and the principles of Islam, an education which left an impact on him for the remainder of his life.
Faisal bin Abdulaziz had only one sister, Nurah. She was married to her cousin, Khalid bin Muhammad bin Abdul Rahman, son of Muhammad bin Abdul Rahman.[9]
Faisal was raised in an atmosphere in which courage was extremely valued and reinforced, unlike that of most of his half brothers. He was motivated by his mother to develop the values of tribal leadership.[10]
By the time of his father’s death, Faisal was the second oldest surviving son.[4]

Early experience

As one of King Abdulaziz’s eldest sons, Prince Faisal was delegated numerous responsibilities to consolidate control over Arabia. In 1925, Prince Faisal, in command of an army of Saudi loyalists, won a decisive victory in the Hejaz. In return, he was made the governor of Hejaz the following year.[2] His appointment in 1926 as viceroy in the Hejaz with its holy cities of Mecca and Medina and the commercial and diplomatic capital of Jeddah catapulted the young prince onto the international stage that affected his appointment as Minister of Foreign Affairs six years later.[11]
After the new Saudi kingdom was formalized in 1932, Prince Faisal became Minister of Foreign Affairs, a position he continued to hold even as King.[12] Prince Faisal visited Europe several times in this period and also Russia in 1933.[13]
Prince Faisal also commanded a section of the Saudi forces that took part in the brief Saudi-Yemeni War of 1934,[14] successfully fighting off Yemeni claims over Saudi Arabia’s southern provinces. In September 1943, Prince Faisal and Prince Khalid were invited to the US, and then Vice President Harry Truman organized a dinner for them at the White House.[15] They stayed at the official government guest house, Blair House, during their visit. They visited the West Coast by a special train that was officially provided by the US government.[15]
ARAMCO‘s development of Saudi oil after World War II nearly sextupled revenue from $10.4 million in 1946 to $56.7 million in 1950.[16] As King Abdulaziz’s health declined and his leadership became lax, Prince Faisal comprehended the necessity for better economic management.[16] In the summer of 1951, King Abdulaziz enlarged the government bureaucracy to include many more members of the extended royal family.[16] Prince Faisal’s eldest son Prince Abdullah was appointed Minister of Health and Interior.[16]

Crown Prince and Prime Minister

Upon the accession of Prince Faisal’s elder brother, King Saud, to the throne in 1953, Prince Faisal was appointed Crown Prince. King Saud, however, embarked on a lavish and ill-considered spending program[2] that included the construction of a massive royal residence on the outskirts of the capital, Riyadh. He also faced pressure from neighboring Egypt, where Gamal Abdel Nasser had overthrown the monarchy in 1952. Nasser was able to cultivate a group of dissident princes led by Prince Talal who defected to Egypt (see Free Princes). Fearing that King Saud’s financial policies were bringing the state to the brink of collapse, and that his handling of foreign affairs was inept, senior members of the royal family and the ulema (religious leadership) pressured Saud into appointing Faisal to the position of prime minister in 1958, giving Faisal wide executive powers.[17] In this new position, Faisal set about cutting spending dramatically in an effort to rescue the state treasury from bankruptcy. This policy of financial prudence was to become a hallmark of his era and earned him a reputation for thriftiness among the populace.
A power struggle ensued thereafter between King Saud and Crown Prince Faisal, and on 18 December 1960, Prince Faisal resigned as prime minister in protest, arguing that King Saud was frustrating his financial reforms. King Saud took back his executive powers and, having induced Prince Talal to return from Egypt, appointed him as minister of finance.[18] In 1962, however, Prince Faisal rallied enough support within the royal family to install himself as prime minister for a second time.[17]
It was during this period as head of the Saudi government that Prince Faisal, though still not king, established his reputation as a reforming and modernizing figure.[2] He introduced education for women and girls despite the consternation of many conservatives in the religious establishment. To appease the objectors, however, he allowed the female educational curriculum to be written and overseen by members of the religious leadership, a policy which lasted long after his death.
In 1963, Prince Faisal established the country’s first television station, though actual broadcasts would not begin for another two years.[19] As with many of his other policies, the move aroused strong objections from the religious and conservative sections of the country. Faisal assured them, however, that Islamic principles of modesty would be strictly observed, and made sure that the broadcasts contained a large amount of religious programming.
Crown Prince Faisal helped establish the Islamic University of Medina in 1961. In 1962, Prince Faisal helped found the Muslim World League, a worldwide charity to which the Saudi royal family has reportedly since donated more than a billion dollars.[20]

Struggle with King Saud

The struggle with King Saud continued in the background during this time. Taking advantage of the king’s absence from the country for medical reasons in early 1963, Faisal began amassing more power for himself. He removed many of Saud’s loyalists from their posts and appointed like-minded princes in key military and security positions,[21][22] such as his brother Prince Abdullah, to whom he gave command of the National Guard in 1962.[23] Upon King Saud’s return, Prince Faisal demanded that he be made regent and that King Saud be reduced to a purely ceremonial role. In this, he had the crucial backing of the ulema, including a fatwa (edict) issued by the grand mufti of Saudi Arabia, a relative of Prince Faisal on his mother’s side, calling on King Saud to accede to his brother’s demands.[21] In other words, Prince Faisal was backed by the religious establishment, which is headed by the Al Shaykh the descendants of Muhammad bin Abd al Wahab. In addition, Prince Faisal sought authority through significant Sudairi backing which he cemented by his marriage to a Sudairi.
King Saud refused, however, and made a last-ditch attempt to retake executive powers, leading Prince Faisal to order the National Guard to surround King Saud’s palace. His loyalists outnumbered and outgunned, King Saud relented, and on 4 March 1964, Prince Faisal was appointed regent. A meeting of the elders of the royal family and the ulema was convened later that year, and a second fatwa was decreed by the grand mufti, calling on King Saud to abdicate the throne in favor of his brother. The royal family supported the fatwa and immediately informed King Saud of their decision. King Saud, by now shorn of all his powers, agreed, and Prince Faisal was proclaimed king on 2 November 1964.[17][22] Shortly thereafter, Saud bin Abdulaziz went into exile in Greece.

King of Saudi Arabia

In an emotional speech shortly after he came to power in 1964, Faisal said: “I beg of you, brothers, to look upon me as both brother and servant. ‘Majesty’ is reserved to God alone and ‘the throne’ is the throne of the Heavens and Earth.” However, it was King Abdulaziz who used family royal titles and his son King Faisal expanded them. Indeed, regulations about royal titles instituted by the Saudi civil service during his reign required that all the direct descendants of King Abdulaziz should be referred to as “His Royal Highness”. Those of his brothers and some of his uncles should be referred to as “His Highness”, and members of other recognized branches of the Sauds as “His Excellency”, a title they share with commoners who held senior governmental positions.[24]

Finance

Upon his ascension, King Faisal still viewed the restoration of the country’s finances as his main priority. He continued to pursue his conservative financial policies during the first few years of his reign, and his aims of balancing the country’s budget eventually succeeded, helped by an increase in oil production.

Modernization

Faisal embarked on a modernization project that encompassed vast parts of the kingdom and involved various public sector institutions. The pinnacle of his achievements in modernizing the Kingdom was the establishment of a judicial system, a project led and executed by an international lawyer and judge, the former Syrian Minister of Justice, Zafer Moussly. Several universities were established or expanded during his rule, and he continued to send a great number of students to foreign universities, especially in the United States. These students would later form the core of the Saudi civil service.

Faisal visiting a construction site near Taif

Many of the country’s ministries, government agencies, and welfare programs were begun during Faisal’s reign, and he invested heavily in infrastructure.[25] He also introduced policies such as agricultural and industrial subsidies that were later to reach their height under his successors, Prince Khalid and Prince Fahd.
King Faisal also put down protests by Saudi workers employed by the international oil company, Aramco, in the Eastern Province, and banned the formation of labor unions in 1965. In compensation for these actions, however, Faisal introduced a far-reaching labor law with the aim of providing maximum job security for the Saudi workforce. He also introduced pension and social insurance programs for workers despite objections from some of the ulema.[26]
Early in his rule, he issued an edict that all Saudi princes had to school their children inside the country, rather than sending them abroad; this had the effect of making it “fashionable” for upper-class families to bring their sons back to study in the Kingdom.[27] King Faisal also introduced the country’s current system of administrative regions, and laid the foundations for a modern welfare system. In 1970, he established the Ministry of Justice and inaugurated the country’s first “five-year plan” for economic development.[25]
Television broadcasts officially began in 1965. In 1966, an especially zealous nephew of Faisal attacked the newly-established headquarters of Saudi television but was killed by security personnel. The attacker was the brother of Faisal’s future assassin, and the incident is the most widely-accepted motive for the murder.[28] Despite the opposition from conservative Saudis to his reforms, however, King Faisal continued to pursue modernization while always making sure to couch his policies in Islamic terms.

Steps against coups d’état

The 1950s and 1960s saw numerous coups d’état in the region. Muammar al-Gaddafi‘s coup that overthrew the monarchy in oil-rich Libya in 1969 was especially ominous for Saudi Arabia due to the similarity between the two sparsely-populated desert countries.[29] As a result, King Faisal undertook to build a sophisticated security apparatus and cracked down firmly on dissent. As in all affairs, King Faisal justified these policies in Islamic terms. Early in his reign, when faced by demands for a written constitution for the country, King Faisal responded that “our constitution is the Quran.”[30] In 1969, King Faisal ordered the arrest of hundreds of military officers, including some generals,[2][31] alleging that a military coup was being planned. The arrests were possibly based on a tip from American intelligence,[29] but it is unclear how serious the threat actually was.

Religious inclusiveness

King Faisal seemed to hold the pluralist view, favouring limited, cautious accommodation of popular demands for inclusive reform, and made repeated attempts to broaden political representation, harking back to King Faisal’s temporarily successful national integration policy from 1965 to 1975. King Faisal acknowledged his country’s religious and cultural diversity, which includes the predominantly Shia Ahsa in the east; the Asir in the southwest, with tribal affinities to Yemen, especially among the Ismaili tribes of Najran and Jizan; and the Kingdom of the Hejaz, with its capital Mecca. He included non-Wahhabi, cosmopolitan Sunni Hejazis from Mecca and Jeddah in the Saudi government. However, after his reign, discrimination based on sect, tribe, region and gender became the order of the day and has remained as such until today.[32]
Interestingly, the role and authority of the ulema declined after the rise of King Faisal although they helped bring him to the throne in 1964. Despite his piety and biological relationship through his mother to the Al as Shaykh family, and his support for the pan-Islamic movement in his struggle against pan-Arabism, he decreased the ulema’s power and influence.[33] Unlike his successor, King Faisal attempted to ensure that the most radical clerics did not hold society’s most powerful religious posts. He tried to block extremist clerics from gaining dominion over key religious institutions, such as the Council of Senior Ulema, the kingdom’s highest religious body, and from rising to high religious positions such as Grand Mufti, a politically recognized senior expert charged with maintaining the entire system of Islamic law. Still, at least some of the king’s advisers warned early on that, once religious zealots were encouraged, they would come back to haunt the kingdom.[20] King Faisal neglected the ulema’s opposition to aspects of his accelerated modernization attempts, sometimes even in matters considered by them to be major issues.[33]
Corruption in the royal family was taken very seriously by a religious group which had its basic orientation in the Islamic theological colleges and which challenged some of the accepted theological interpretations adopted by the Saudi regime. One such influential figure was Shaykh bin Baz, then rector of the Al Medina college of Theology. King Faisal would not tolerate his criticism and had him removed from his position. But his teachings had already radicalized some of his students. One of them was Juhayman al-Otaybi.[34]

Abolition of slavery

Slavery did not vanish in Saudi Arabia until King Faisal issued a decree for its total abolition in 1962. Peter Hobday stated that about 1,682 slaves were freed at that time, at a cost to the government of $2,000 each.[34] It is argued that the US began to raise the issue of slavery after the meeting between King Abdulaziz and US president Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1945 and that John F. Kennedy finally persuaded the House of Saud to abolish slavery in 1962.[35]

Foreign relations

King Faisal, U.S. President Richard Nixon and his wife Pat Nixon (27 May 1971)

As king, Faisal continued the close alliance with the United States begun by his father, and relied on the U.S. heavily for arming and training his armed forces. King Faisal was also anti-Communist. He refused any political ties with the Soviet Union and other Communist bloc countries, professing to see a complete incompatibility between Communism and Islam,[2][36] and associating Communism with Zionism, which he also criticized sharply.
King Faisal also supported monarchist and conservative movements in the Arab world, and sought to counter the influences of socialism and Arab Nationalism in the region by promoting pan-Islamism as an alternative.[7] To that end, he called for the establishment of the Muslim World League, visiting several Muslim countries to advocate the idea. He also engaged in a propaganda and media war with Egypt‘s pan-Arabist president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, and engaged in a proxy war with Egypt in Yemen that lasted until 1967 (see Yemeni Civil War). Faisal never explicitly repudiated pan-Arabism, however, and continued to call for inter-Arab solidarity in broad terms.
Following the death of Nasser in 1970, King Faisal drew closer to Egypt‘s new president, Anwar Sadat,[7] who himself was planning a break with the Soviet Union and a move towards the pro-American camp. During the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, launched by Sadat, King Faisal withdrew Saudi oil from world markets, in protest over Western support for Israel during the conflict. This action increased the price of oil and was the primary force behind the 1973 energy crisis. It was to be the defining act of King Faisal’s career, and gained him lasting prestige among many Arabs and Muslims worldwide. In 1974, he was named Time magazine‘s Man of the Year, and the financial windfall generated by the crisis fueled the economic boom that occurred in Saudi Arabia after his death. The new oil revenue also allowed Faisal to greatly increase the aid and subsidies begun following the 1967 Arab-Israeli War[3] to Egypt, Syria, and the Palestine Liberation Organization.[37] It is a commonly-held belief in Saudi Arabia, and the wider Arab and Muslim world that King Faisal’s oil boycott was the real cause of his assassination, via a Western conspiracy,[38][39] his assassin having just returned from the United States (see below).
King Faisal also developed a close alliance with Pakistan, where he is regarded highly for his foreign policy and pan-Islamic ideals. He was a very close friend of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto renowned Prime Minister of Pakistan, as well as General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq. Lyallpur, which was then the third largest city and currently is the third largest in Pakistan, was renamed Faisalabad (lit. “City of Faisal”) in 1979 in his honor. The Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after him as well. The main highway in Karachi was renamed Shahrah-e-Faisal and a suburb close to Karachi Airport was also renamed Shah Faisal Colony. One of the two major air force bases in Pakistan’s largest city, Karachi, is named “PAF Base Faisal” in honour of King Faisal.[citation needed]

Personal life

King Faisal married four times.[40] Three of his spouses were from powerful families; Sudairi, Al Jiluwi and Al Thunayan.[41]
His first wife who was the mother of his eldest son Prince Abdullah was Sultana bint Ahmed al Sudairi. She was from the Sudairi family and a sister of Hassa bint Ahmed who was the mother of the Sudairi brothers.[40][42]
His second wife was Al Jawhara bint Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Al Kabir and they had a daughter, Munira.[40] She was the daughter of his aunt, Nuora bint Abdul Rahman.[43] They married in October 1935.[43]
His third wife who is the mother of Prince Khalid was Haya bint Turki bin Abdulaziz Al Turki,[40] a member of the Al Jiluwi clan.[33]
His last and most prominent wife was Iffat Al-Thuniyyan. She was raised in Turkey and was a descendant of the Al Saud family who were taken to Istanbul or Cairo by Egyptian forces in 1818 (see First Saudi State). Iffat is credited with being the influence behind many of her late husband’s reforms, particularly with regards to women.[7][44][45]
Faisal’s sons received exceptional education compared to other princes born to Saudi monarchs. Prince Turki received formal education at prestigious schools in New Jersey, and later attended Georgetown University,[46] while Prince Saud is an alumnus of Princeton University. King Faisal’s sons have held and continue to hold important positions within the Saudi government. His eldest son Prince Abdullah was born in 1922 and held some governmental positions for a while. Prince Khalid was the governor of Asir Province in southwestern Saudi Arabia for more than three decades before becoming governor of Makkah Province in 2007. Prince Saud has been the Saudi foreign minister since 1975. Prince Turki served as head of Saudi intelligence, ambassador to the United Kingdom, and later ambassador to the United States.[47]
King Faisal’s daughter, Haifa bint Faisal, is married to Bandar bin Sultan. He had been all but disowned by his father Prince Sultan at the time due to his perceived inferior lineage. King Faisal, however, forced Prince Sultan to recognize Bandar as a legitimate prince by giving Prince Bandar his own daughter’s hand in marriage. Another daughter, Lolowah bint Faisal is a prominent activist for women’s education in Saudi Arabia. In 1962, his daughter Princess Sara founded one of the first charitable organizations, Nahda, which recently won the first Chaillot prize for human rights organisations in the Gulf.[48] Princess Sara is married to Muhammed bin Saud. One of his daughters and Prince Khalid’s full sister, Princess Mishail, died at the age of 72 in October 2011.[49]
After his death, Faisal’s family established the King Faisal Foundation, a philanthropic organisation.
King Faisal was a Grateful Dead fan and was eulogized by lyricist Robert Hunter in the title track of the 1975 Blues for Allah album.[50]

Assassination

On 25 March 1975, King Faisal was shot point-blank and killed by his half-brother’s son, Faisal bin Musaid, who had just come back from the United States. The murder occurred at a majlis (literally “a place for sitting”), an event where the king or leader opens up his residence to the citizens to enter and petition the king.
In the waiting room, Prince Faisal talked to Kuwaiti representatives who were also waiting to meet King Faisal.[51] When the Prince went to embrace him, King Faisal leaned to kiss his nephew in accordance with Saudi culture. At that instant, Prince Faisal took out a pistol and shot him. The first shot hit King Faisal’s chin and the second one went through King Faisal’s ear.[51] A bodyguard hit Prince Faisal with a sheathed sword.[51] Oil minister Zaki Yamani yelled repeatedly to not kill Prince Faisal.[51]
King Faisal was quickly taken to the hospital.[51] He was still alive as doctors massaged his heart and gave him a blood transfusion.[51] They were unsuccessful and King Faisal died shortly afterward.[51] Both before and after the assassination the prince was reported to be calm.[51] Following the killing, Riyadh had three days of mourning and all government activities were at a standstill.[51]
One theory for the murder was avenging the death of Prince Khalid bin Musa’id, the brother of Prince Faisal. King Faisal instituted modern and secular reforms that led to the installation of television, which provoked violent protest, one which was led by Prince Khalid, who during the course of an attack on a television station was shot dead by a policeman.[52]
Prince Faisal, who was captured directly after the attack, was officially declared insane. But following the trial, a panel of Saudi medical experts decided that Faisal was sane when he gunned the king down. The nation’s high religious court convicted him of regicide and sentenced him to execution.Despite Faisal’s dying request that the life of his assassin be spared,[citation needed] he was beheaded in the public square in Riyadh.[51] The public execution took place on 18 June 1975 at 4:30 p.m.—three hours before sundown—before a throng of thousands at the Al Hukm Palace (Palace of Justice).

Funeral

King Faisal was buried in Al Oud cemetery in Riyadh on 26 March 1975.[53][54] His successor, Crown Prince Khalid, wept over his body at his funeral.[55]

References

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  40. ^ a b c d “Family Tree of Faysal bin Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud”. Datarabia. http://www.datarabia.com/royals/famtree.do?id=176247. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  41. ^ Quandt, William B. (1981). Saudi Arabia in the 1980s: Foreign Policy, Security, and Oil. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution. pp. 79. http://books.google.com.tr/books?hl=en&lr=&id=g3gf5fKvv_4C&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=foreign+affairs+of+saudi+arabia&ots=UZl07ssvPS&sig=k3fdCG0368Ln8pr4W6BjPy1BJp4&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=foreign%20affairs%20of%20saudi%20arabia&f=false.
  42. ^ Kechichian, Joseph A. (2001). Succession in Saudi Arabia. New York: Palgrave. http://books.google.com.tr/books?hl=en&lr=&id=79Fs5bLPgBYC&oi=fnd&pg=PR11&dq=al+saud+family+and+kings+of+saudi+arabia&ots=YFmkl8GmQZ&sig=45qdVk8oekLEYh6Ep0e-wTguhqk&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=al%20saud%20family%20and%20kings%20of%20saudi%20arabia&f=false.
  43. ^ a b “General Index”. King Khalid Foundation. http://www.kingkhalid.org.sa/Fahares.aspx?ID=41732&View=page&BookID=204&PageID=1858&HashHit=`Abdul%20`Aziz%20ibn%20Musaid%20ibn%20Jiluwi%20ibn%20Saud. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  44. ^ “King Faisal Assassinated.” Lewiston Evening Journal [Lewiston-Auburn, Maine] 25 March 1975: 1+. Print. [7]
  45. ^ Weston, Mark. Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008. 169. Print. [8]
  46. ^ Georgetown University (2008). “Reflections on US-Saudi Relations”. georgetown.edu. http://events.georgetown.edu/events/index.cfm?Action=View&EventID=63916. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
  47. ^ Reuters (2006). “Embassy official: Saudi ambassador to U.S. resigns”. CNN. Archived from the original on 11 January 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070111060440/http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/12/12/usa.saudi.reut/index.html. Retrieved 17 December 2006.
  48. ^ Ana Echagüe; Edward Burke (June 2009). “‘Strong Foundations’? The Imperative for Reform in Saudi Arabia”. FRIDE (Spanish Think-tank organization). pp. 1–23. http://edoc.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/HALCoRe_derivate_00003652/Strong%20Foundations.pdf. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  49. ^ “Princess Mashael bint Faisal passes away”. Life in Riyadh. 3 October 2011. http://www.lifeinriyadh.com/tag/princess. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  50. ^ “The Sounds of the ’60s: How Dick Dale, the Doors, and Dylan Swayed to Arab Music”. Alternet.org. 3 December 2008. http://www.alternet.org/story/109842/the_sounds_of_the_’60s%3A_how_dick_dale,_the_doors,_and_dylan_swayed_to_arab_music/?page=4. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j “BBC On this day|25|1975: Saudi’s King Faisal Assassinated.” BBC News – Home. BBC, 25 March 1975. Web. 21 February 2011. [9].
  52. ^ Commins, David (2006). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. pp. 110. ISBN 1-84511-080-3.
  53. ^ Shaheen, Abdul Nabi (23 October 2011). “Sultan will have simple burial at Al Oud cemetery”. Gulf News. http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/saudi-arabia/sultan-will-have-simple-burial-at-al-oud-cemetery-1.916706. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
  54. ^ Ross, Michael (26 March 1975). “Brother of murdered King assumes throne”. Times Union. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=eLdGAAAAIBAJ&sjid=EHwMAAAAIBAJ&pg=2446,3774094&dq=king+khalid&hl=en. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  55. ^ Ludington, Nick. “Public Execution Expected.” Daily News [Bowling Green, Kentucky] 24 March 1975: 5. Print.[10]

King Fahd of Saudi Arabia فهد بن عبد العزيز آل سعود

King of Saudi Arabia
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia
King of Saudi Arabia
Reign 13 June 1982 – 1 August 2005
Predecessor King Khalid
Successor King Abdullah
Regent King Abdullah
(21 February 1996 – 1 August 2005)
1st Minister of Education
In Office 1954–1962
Successor Abdulaziz bin Mohammad Al al-Shaikh
6th Minister of Interior
In Office 1962–1975
Predecessor Faisal bin Turki Al Saud
Successor Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
Issue
Faisal bin Fahd
Khaled bin Fahd
Muhammad bin Fahd
Saud bin Fahd
Sultan bin Fahd
Abdul-Aziz bin Fahd
House House of Saud
Father Ibn Saud
Mother Hassa bint Ahmed Al Sudairi
Born (1923-03-16)16 March 1923
Riyadh, Kingdom of Hejaz
Died 1 August 2005(2005-08-01) (age 82)
King Faisal Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Burial 1 August 2005
Al Oud cemetery, Riyadh
Religion Islam
Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, (Arabic: فهد بن عبد العزيز آل سعودFahd ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Āl Su‘ūd) (1923[1][2] – 1 August 2005) was King of Saudi Arabia, from 1982 to 2005.

Early life

King Fahd was born in 1923. He is the eighth son of Ibn Saud [3] His mother is Hassa al Sudairi and he was the eldest member of Sudairi Seven.
Fahd’s education took place at the Princes’ School in Riyadh, a school established by Ibn Saud specifically for the education of members of the House of Saud. While at the Princes’ School, Fahd studied under tutors including Sheikh Abdul-Ghani Khayat. In 1932, Fahd watched as his father officially founded the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by signing the Treaty of Jeddah.

Early political positions

In 1945, Prince Fahd traveled on his first state visit to San Francisco for the signing of the UN charter. On this trip he served under his brother, Prince Faisal, who was at the time Saudi Arabia’s foreign minister. In 1954, at the age of 30, Prince Fahd was appointed Education Minister by his father. In 1953, Fahd led his first official state visit, attending the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II on behalf of the House of Saud.[1][2]
Prince Fahd led the Saudi delegation to the League of Arab States in 1959, signifying his increasing prominence in the House of Saud — and that he was being groomed for a more significant role.
Prince Fahd had two brothers born before him, Prince Nasser and Prince Saad, who had prior claims to the throne, but both were considered unsuitable candidates. By contrast, Prince Fahd had served as minister of education from 1954 to 1960 and minister of interior from 1962 to 1975.
In 1962, Fahd was given the important post of Interior Minister and six years later, he was the first person appointed to the position of Second Deputy Prime Minister. After the death of King Faisal in 1975, Fahd was named first deputy Prime Minister and concurrently Crown Prince.

Reign

King Fahd gave money for building mosques throughout the world. The Ibrahim-Al-Ibrahim Mosque, at Europa Point, Gibraltar, which opened in 1997, is one such mosque.
On 25 March 1975, King Faisal was assassinated by his nephew and King Khalid assumed power. Fahd, as next in the line of succession, became Crown Prince and First Deputy Prime Minister. Especially in the later years of King Khalid’s reign, Fahd was viewed as the de facto prime minister. When King Khalid died on 13 June 1982, Fahd succeeded to the throne. He adopted the title “Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques” in 1986, replacing “His Majesty”, to signify an Islamic rather than secular authority.

Foreign policy

Fahd was a supporter of the United Nations. He supported foreign aid and had given 5.5% of Saudi Arabia’s national income through various funds especially the Saudi Fund for Development and the OPEC Fund for International Development. He had also given aid to foreign groups such as the Bosnian Muslims in the Yugoslav Wars, as well as the Nicaraguan Contras, providing “a million dollars per month from May to December 1984.[4] King Fahd had also been a strong supporter of the Palestinian cause and an opponent of the State of Israel.[5] Fahd was staunch ally of the United States, and once said “After Allah, we can count on the United States.”[6]

Grand Mosque Seizure, Iran, and Islamic education

The 1979 Revolution in Iran radically transformed the political landscape in the Middle East, as the hereditary monarchy of the Shah of Iran was deposed in favor of a Shi’a theocracy. In the same year, anti-monarchist dissidents in Saudi Arabia seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca, and accused the Saudi royal family of being insufficiently Islamic and so unfit to rule the Kingdom. Fearing that the 1979 Revolution in Iran could lead to similar Islamic upheaval in Saudi Arabia, Fahd spent considerable sums after ascending the throne in 1982 to support Saddam Hussein’s Iraq in its war with Iran.[7] He also changed his royal title to “custodian of the two holy mosques”, and took steps to support the conservative Saudi religious establishment, including spending millions of dollars on religious education, further distancing himself from his inconvenient past.[8]

Recreational activities

At the same time as King Fahd presided over a more strict Islamic policy at home he was known to enjoy luxurious living abroad, even in ways that would not be allowed in his own kingdom. He visited the ports of the French Riviera, in his 147-metre (482 ft) yacht, the $100 million Abdul Aziz. The ship featured two swimming pools, a ballroom, a gym, a theater, a portable garden, a hospital with an intensive-care unit and two operating rooms, and four American Stinger missiles.[9] The king also had a personal $150 million Boeing 747 jet, equipped with his own fountain. In his visits to London he reportedly lost millions of dollars in the casinos and even was known to circumvent the curfew imposed by British gaming laws by hiring his own blackjack and roulette dealers to continue gambling through the night in his hotel suite.[10]

Persian Gulf War, 1991

In 1991, Iraqi forces under Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, placing the Iraqi army (then the largest in the Middle East) on the Saudi-Kuwaiti border. King Fahd agreed to host American-led coalition troops in his Kingdom, and later allowed American troops to be based there. This decision brought him considerable criticism and opposition from many Saudi citizens, who objected to the presence of foreign troops on Saudi soil; this is a casus belli against the Saudi royal family prominently cited by Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda.

Reform and industrialization

In regards to reform, King Fahd showed little tolerance for reformists. In 1992, a group of reformists and prominent Saudi intellectuals petitioned King Fahd for wide ranging reforms, including widening political representation, and curbing the royal family’s wasteful spending. King Fahd first responded by ignoring their requests and when they persisted, reformists were harshly persecuted, imprisoned and fired from their jobs.
During King Fahd’s rule, the royal family’s lavish spending of the country’s wealth reached its height. In addition, the biggest and most controversial military contracts of the century, the Al-Yamamah arms deal was signed under his watch.[11] The contract has cost the Saudi treasury more than $90 billion. These funds were originally allocated to building hospitals, schools, universities and roads. As a result, Saudi Arabia has endured a stagnation in infrastructure development from 1986 till 1999 when the new King, Abdullah, fully came into power.
Like all the countries overlooking the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia under King Fahd has focused its industrial development on hydrocarbon installations. Up to this day, the country is reliant on imports for nearly all its light and heavy machinery.
King Fahd established a Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs directed by senior family members and technocrats in 1994. The council was planned to function as an ombudsman of Islamic activity concerning educational, economic and foreign policy matters. The chairman of the council was Prince Sultan. Prince Nayef, Prince Saud and a technocrat Mohammed Ali Aba al Khayl were appointed to the newly established council. One of the covert purposes of the council was thought to reduce the authority of the Ulemas Council that increased its power.[12]

Rule after the 1995 stroke

King Fahd was a heavy smoker, overweight for much of his adult life, and in his sixties began to suffer from arthritis and severe diabetes.[13] He suffered a debilitating stroke in 1995 and became noticeably frail, and decided to delegate the running of the Kingdom to Crown Prince Abdullah. On 21 February 1996, he reassumed official duties.
After his stroke King Fahd was partly inactive, though he still attended meetings and received selected visitors. In November 2003, according to government media, King Fahd was quoted as saying to “strike with an iron fist” at terrorists after deadly bombings, although he could hardly utter a word because of his debilitating stroke and deteriorating health. However, it is Crown Prince Abdullah who took official trips; when King Fahd traveled it was for vacations, and he was sometimes absent from Saudi Arabia for months at a time. When his oldest son and International Olympic Committee member Prince Faisal bin Fahd died in 1999, the King was in Spain and did not return for the funeral.[14]
In a speech to an Islamic conference on 30 August 2003, King Fahd condemned terrorism and exhorted Muslim clerics to emphasize peace, security, cooperation, justice, and tolerance in their sermons.[15]

Awards

King Fahd was awarded with Azerbaijani Istiglal Order for his contributions to development of Azerbaijan-Saudi Arabia relations and strategic cooperation between the states by President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev on 7 March 2005.[16]

Wealth

Fahds’s wealth was estimated to be $25 billion.[17] Fortune Magazine reported that his wealth in 1988 was $18 billion, making him the second richest person in the world.[18]

Personal life

King Fahd was married at least four times. He had six sons and three daughters. His sons are:
  • Faisal bin Fahd (1945–1999) Died of a heart attack. Director-general of Youth Welfare (1971–1999), Director-general at Ministry of Planning and Minister of State (1977–1999)
  • Muhammad bin Fahd (born 1950), Governor of the Eastern province
  • Saud bin Fahd (born 1951), former deputy president of the General Intelligence Directorate[19]
  • Sultan bin Fahd (born 1951), Army Officer. Elevated to ministerial rank in November 1997. Former head of Youth Welfare
  • Khalid bin Fahd (born February 1958)[19]
  • Abdulaziz bin Fahd, (born 1973), Fahd’s favorite and youngest son and minister of state without portfolio. He is the son of Princess Jawhara al-Ibrahim, Fahd’s fourth and, reportedly, favorite wife.[20]
The spouses of King Fahd are as follows:
  • Janan Harb Al Saud (Widowed)[21]
  • HH Princess Al Anood bint Abdulaziz Bin Mousad al Saud (Deceased), mother of Prince Faisal bin Fahd
  • HH Princess Al Joharah bint Ibrahim al Ibrahim, mother of Prince Abdulaziz bin Fahd
  • HH Princess Joza’a bint Abdullah bin Abdulrahman al Saud
  • HH Princess Al Joharah bint Abdullah al Sudairi (Deceased)
  • HH Princess Modhi bint Turki bin Abdullah al Saud (Divorced)
  • HH Princess Joza’a bint Sultan al Adgham al Subaie (Divorced)
  • HH Princess Turfa bint Abdulaziz bin Mo’amar (Divorced)
  • HH Princess Watfa bint Obaid bin Ali al Jabr al Rasheed (Divorced)
  • HH Princess Lolwa al Abdulrahman al Muhana Aba al Khail (Divorced)
  • HH Princess Shaikha bint Turki bin Mariq al Thit (Divorced)
  • HH Princess Seeta bint Ghunaim bin Sunaitan Abu Thnain (Divorced)

Death

King Fahd was admitted to the King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh on 27 May 2005 for unspecified medical tests. An official (who insisted on anonymity) told the Associated Press unofficially that the king had died at 7:30 EDT on 1 August 2005. A member of the cabinet publicly announced his death on Saudi TV the same morning, and said that he died of pneumonia and a high fever.

Funeral

He was buried in the last thawab (traditional Arab robe) he wore. Fahd’s body was carried to Imam Turki bin Abdullah Mosque, and funeral prayers were held at around 3:30 local time (12:30 GMT). The prayers for the late monarch were led by the Kingdom’s grand mufti, Sheikh Abdul Aziz Al Sheikh.
The “funeral prayer”, during which worshipers remain standing, was performed after afternoon prayers. The ceremony was replicated in other mosques across the Kingdom, where the “prayers for the absentee” were held.
The body was carried by King Fahd’s son, Abdul Aziz bin Fahd, to the mosque and to the Al-Oud cemetery some two kilometers away, a public cemetery where Fahd’s four predecessors and other members of the Al Saud ruling family are buried.[22]
Arab and Muslim dignitaries who attended the funeral were not present at the burial. Only ruling family members and Saudi citizens were on hand as the body was lowered into the grave.
Muslim leaders offered condolences at the mosque, while other foreign dignitaries and leaders who came after the funeral paid their respects at the royal court.
According to the regulations and social traditions, Saudi Arabia did not declare a national mourning period. Also, all government offices and public buildings were open as usual and the state flag was not lowered (since the flag of Saudi Arabia bears the Shahada, the Islamic declaration of faith, the flag’s protocol requires the flag not to be lowered)
After his death, many countries declared mourning periods. Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Syria, Yemen, the Arab League in Cairo, and the Palestinian Authority all declared three-day mourning periods. Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates declared a seven-day mourning period and ordered all flags flown at half-staff. In Jordan, a national three-day mourning period was declared and a 40-day mourning period was decreed at the Royal Court.

References

  1. ^ a b “Saudi Arabia Winter 2002 Magazine: King Fahd – his first 20 years:”. Saudi Arabia (Washington, DC, US: Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia) 18 (4). Winter 2002. http://www.saudiembassy.net/files/PDF/Publications/Magazine/2002-Winter/King%20Fahd.htm. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  2. ^ a b “King Fahd 1923-2005:”. Washington, DC, US: Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. 1 August 2005. http://www.saudiembassy.net/archive/2005/news/page365.aspx. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
  3. ^ Mouline, Nabil (April*June 2012). “Power and generational transition in Saudi Arabia”. Critique Internationale 46: 1–22. http://www.ceri-sciencespo.com/publica/critique/46/ci46_nm.pdf. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  4. ^ “Robert Busby: The Scandal that Almost Destroyed Ronald Reagan”. History News Network. http://hnn.us/node/136285. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  5. ^ “Palestine-Israel Issue – King Fahd Bin Abdulaziz”. http://www.kingfahdbinabdulaziz.com/main/l500.htm. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  6. ^ “Welcome to the CIA Web Site — Central Intelligence Agency”. Cia.gov. 2012-10-19. http://www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
  7. ^ Obituary: King Fahd, BBC News, 1 August 2005. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
  8. ^ Wood, Paul. Life and legacy of King Fahd, BBC News, 1 August 2005. Retrieved 10 June 2008.
  9. ^ Simons, Geoff, Saudi Arabia, St. Martins, (1998), p.28
  10. ^ Marie Colvin, `The Squandering Sheikhs, Sunday Times, 29 August 1993
  11. ^ Taylor, Michael J.H. (2001). Flight International World Aircraft and Systems Directory (3rd Edition ed.). United Kingdom: Reed Business Information. pp. 189–190. ISBN 0-617-01289-X.
  12. ^ Ibrahim, Youssef M. (6 October 1994). “Saudi King Trying to Dilute Islamic Radicalism”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1994/10/06/world/saudi-king-trying-to-dilute-islamic-radicalism.html?src=pm. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  13. ^ “King Fahd”. The Daily Telegraph (London). 2 August 2005. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1495300/King-Fahd.html.
  14. ^ Saudi Arabia’s King Fahd Dies; Abdullah Named New Leader, New York Times, 1 August 2005. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
  15. ^ Prados, Alfred B. (2003). “Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and”. CRS Issue Brief for Congress. http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/IB93113_20030915.pdf. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  16. ^ “İki Müqəddəs Ocağın Xadimi, Səudiyyə Ərəbistanının Kralı Fəhd bin Əbdüləziz Al Səudun “İstiqlal” ordeni ilə təltif edilməsi haqqında AZƏRBAYCAN RESPUBLİKASI PREZİDENTİNİN FƏRMANI [Order of the President of Azerbaijan Republic on awarding King Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia with istiglal Order of Azerbaijan Republic]“. E-qanun.az. http://e-qanun.az/print.php?internal=view&target=1&docid=9650&doctype=0. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  17. ^ “Magazine Article”. Forbes. 4 March 2002. http://www.forbes.com/2002/03/04/royalsphotoshow_print.html. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  18. ^ “Princes are glue of nation”. The News and Courier. AP. 22 April 1990. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=WYRJAAAAIBAJ&sjid=1wsNAAAAIBAJ&pg=1913,2195616&dq=prince+turki+king+khalid&hl=en. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  19. ^ a b Sharif, Sabri (2001). The House of Saud in Commerce: A Study of Royal Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia,. New Delhi: I. S. Publication. ISBN 81-901254-0-0. http://books.google.com/?id=51Bb8Ix7xw8C&pg=PA151&lpg=PA151&dq=hala+bint+ahmad+al-sudairi#v=onepage&q=hala%20bint%20ahmad%20al-sudairi&f=false.
  20. ^ “The Fall of the House of Saud – Magazine”. The Atlantic. 12 September 2001. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200305/baer. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  21. ^ [1][dead link]
  22. ^ Shaheen, Abdul Nabi (23 October 2011). “Sultan will have simple burial at Al Oud cemetery”. Gulf News. http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/saudi-arabia/sultan-will-have-simple-burial-at-al-oud-cemetery-1.916706. Retrieved 29 July 2012.

 

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Passu Glacier

Top honours for Pakistan Cricket Team at CEAT awards


  • CONGRATS – Pakistan has won the “Best International Cricket Team” Award in the 2011-2012 season at the CEAT cricket awards, in New Delhi.

    Legendary Wasim Akram collected the award on behalf of the Pakistan team and said, “It’s an honour for me to collect this award on behalf of the team, They really played some good cricket this season and I congratulate them for emerging the winner.”

     

By KHAWAJA UMER FAROOQ Posted in Sports

Nishan-e-Haider

 Our Heros

Nishan-e-Haider
Captain Mohammad Sarwar, Punjab Regiment
Date of Shahadat : 27th July 1948
Naik Saif Ali Janjua, Azad Kashmir Regiment
(Was awarded Hilal-e-Kashmir – an equivalent to Nishan-i-Haider)
Date of Shahadat : 26th April 1948
Major Tufail Mohammad, Punjab Regiment
Date of Shahadat : 7th August 1958
Major Raja Aziz Bhatti, Punjab Regiment
Date of Shahadat : 12th September 1965

Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas, Pakistan Air Force
Date of Shahadat : 20th August 1971
Major Shabbir Sharif Frontier Force Regiment
Date of Shahadat : 7th December 1971

Sowar Mohammad Hussain, Armoured Corps
Date of Shahadat : 10th December 1971
Major Mohammad Akram, Frontier Force Regiment
Date of Shahadat : 15th December 1971
Lance Naik Mohammad Mahfuz, Punjab Regiment
Date of Shahadat : 17th December 1971

Captain Karnal Sher Khan, Sind Regiment
Date of Shahadat : 7th July 1999

Havildar Lalak Jan, Northern Light Infantry
Date of Shahadat : 7th July 1999

Atlantic Road

Sharp turns and wild nature have put the Atlantic Road at the top of the British newspaper The Guardian’s list of the world’s best road trips. Atlantic Ocean Road takes you over 8 brigdes from islet to islet out to the very point where the land ends and the ocean begins. It is a 8.3-kilometer (5.2 mi) long section of County Road 64 which runs through an archipelago in Eide and Averøy in Møre og Romsdal, Norway.

(Bang-e-Dra-126) Dua (دعا) Prayer

(Bang-e-Dra-126) Dua (دعا) Prayer

Dua
Prayer

Ya Rab! Dil-e-Muslim Ko Woh Zinda Tamana De
Jo Qalb Ko Garma De, Jo Rooh Ko Tarpa De

Lord, fill the Muslim’s heart with a desire so fervent
That it will set his heart aflame and stir his soul.

Phir Wadi-e-Faran Ke Har Zarre Ko Chamka De
Phir Shauq-e-Tamasha De, Phir Zauq-e-Taqaza

Light up again every speck of dust in the Valley of Faran.
Make us long again for beautiful sights, and create in us the urge to make demands.

Mehroom-e-Tamasha Ko Phir Dida-e-Beena De
Dekha Hai Jo Kuch Mein Ne Auron Ko Bhi Dikhla De

Give piercing vision to those deprived of sight,
and show to others what I have seen.

Bhatke Huway Aahu Ko Phir Soo’ay Haram Le Chal
Iss Sheher Ke Khugar Ko Phir Wusaat-e-Sehra De

Lead the stray gazelle back to the Sanctuary.
It has grown used to the city ‐ Give it back the vastness of the desert.

Paida Dil-e-Weeran Mein Phir Shaurish-e-Mehshar Kar
Iss Mehmil-e-Khali Ko Phir Shahid-e-Laila De

Stir up again the ruins of the heart with a commotion like judgment Day.
Let this empty litter once again seat a sweetheart ‐ a Layla!

Iss Dour Ki Zulmat Mein Har Qalb-e-Preshan Ko
Woh Dagh-e-Mohabbat De Jo Chand Ko Sharma De

In the darkness of this age give to every troubled heart
Scars of love that would shame the moon.

Riffat Mein Maqasid Ko Humdosh-e-Surraya Kar
Khuddari-e-Sahil De, Azadi-e-Darya De

Let the goals be as high as the Pleiades.
Give us the calm and poise of the shore, But the freedom of the sea.

Be Lous Mohabbat Ho, Bebak Sadaqat Ho
Seenon Mein Ujala Kar, Dil Soorat-e-Meena De

Let love be selfless and truth fearless;
Let our breasts be flooded with light‐Make our hearts clear as crystal.

Ehsas Anayat Kar Asaar-e-Mosibat Ka
Amroz Ki Shuarish Mein Andesha-e-Farda De

Enable us to foresee the calamity that is coming;
In the midst of today’s upheaval give us a vision of tomorrow.

Main Bulbul-e-Nalan Hun Ek Ujre Gulistan Ka
Taseer Ka Saa’il Hun, Mauhtaj Ko, Data De!

I am a nightingale making my lament, I am from a garden which has been ravaged.
I wish that my prayer would have effect—Give to a beggar, bounteous Lord!

(Bal-e-Jibril-124) Masjid-e-Qurtaba (مسجد قرطبہ) The Mosque of Cordoba


(Bal-e-Jibril-124) Masjid-e-Qurtaba (مسجد قرطبہ) The Mosque of Cordoba

Masjid-e-Qurtuba
THE MOSQUE OF CORDOBA

(Haspania Ki Sarzameen, Bil-Khasoos Qurtaba Mein Likhi Gyi)
(Written in Spain, especially Cordoba)

Silsalah-E-Roz-O-Shab, Naqsh Gar-E-Hadsaat
Silsalah-E-Roz-O-Shab, Asal-E-Hayat-O-Mamaat

The succession of day and night, is the architect of events.
The succession of day and night,  is the fountain‐head of life and death.

Silsalah-E-Roz-O-Shab, Taar-E-Hareer-E-Do Rang
Jis Se Banati Hai Zaat Apni Qaba’ay Sifat

The succession of day and night,  is a two‐tone silken twine,
With which the Divine Essence, prepares Its apparel of Attributes.

Silsalah-E-Roz-O-Shab, Saaz-E-Azal Ki Faghan
Jis Se Dikhati Hai Zaat Zair-O-Bam-E-Mumkinaat

The succession of day and night, is the reverberation of the symphony of Creation.
Through its modulations, the Infinite demonstrates the parameters of possibilities.

Tujh Ko Parakhta Hai Ye, Mujh Ko Parakhta Hai Ye
Silsalah-E-Roz-O-Shab, Sayr Fee Kainat

Now sitting in judgement on you, Now setting a value on me.
 The succession of day and night is the touchstone of the universe;

Tu Ho Agar Kam Ayaar, Main Hun Agar Kam Ayaar
Mout Hai Teri Baraat, Mout Hai Meri Baraat

But what if you are found wanting, What if I am found wanting.
Death is your ultimate destiny, Death is my ultimate destiny.

Tere Shab-O-Roz Ki Aur Haqiqat Hai Kya
Aik Zamane Ki Ro Jis Mein Na Din Hai Na Raat

What else is the reality of your days and nights,
Besides a surge in the river of time, sans day, sans night.

Aani –O-Fani Tamam Mojazaat  Haye Gunar
Kaar-E-Jahan Be-Sabaat, Kaar-E-Jahan Be-Sabaat!

Frail and evanescent, all miracles of ingenuity,
Transient, all temporal attainments; Ephemeral, all worldly accomplishments.

Awwal-O-Akhir Fana, Batin-O-Zahir Fana
Naqsh-E-Kuhan Ho Ke Nau, Manzil-E-Akhir Fana

Annihilation is the end of all beginnings; Annihilation is the end of all ends.
Extinction, the fate of everything; Hidden or manifest, old or new.

Hai Magar Iss Naqsh Mein Rang-E-Sabaat-E-Dawam
Jis Ko Kiya Ho Kisi Mard-E-Khuda Ne Tamam

Yet in this very scenario indelible is the stamp of permanence
On the deeds of the good and godly.

Mard-E-Khuda Ka Amal Ishq Se Sahib Firogh
Ishq Hai Asal-E-Hayat, Mout Hai Iss Par Haraam

Deeds of the godly radiate with Love,
The essence of life, which death is forbidden to touch.

Tund-O-Subak Sair Hai Gharcha Zamane Ki Ro
Ishq Khud Ek Sayl Hai, Sayl Ko Leta Hai Thaam

Fast and free flows the tide of time,
But Love itself is a tide that stems all tides.

Ishq Ki Taqweem Mein Asar-E-Rawan Ke Sawa
Aur Zamane Bhi Hain Jin Ka Nahin Koi Naam

In the chronicle of Love there are times other than the past, the present and the future;
Times for which no names have yet been coined.

Ishq Dam-E-Jibreel, Ishq Dam-E-Mustafa (S.A.W.).
Ishq Khuda Ka Rasool, Ishq Khuda Ka Kalaam

 Love is the breath of Gabriel. Love is the heart of Holy Prophet (PBUH).
Love is the messenger of God. Love is the Word of God.

Ishq Ki Masti Se Hai Paikar-E-Gil Taabnaak
Ishq Hai  Sehba’ay Khaam, Ishq Hai Kaas-Ul-Kiraam

Love is ecstasy lends luster to earthly forms.
Love is the heady wine, Love is the grand goblet.

Ishq Faqeeh-E-Haram, Ishq Ameer Junood
Ishq Hai Ibn-Ul-Sabeel, Iss Ke Hazaron Maqam

Love is the commander of marching troops,
Love is a wayfarer with many a way‐side abode.

Ishq Ke Mizraab Se Naghma’ay Taar-E-Hayat
Ishq Se Noor-E-Hayat, Ishq Se Naar-E-Hayat

Love is the plectrum that brings Music to the string of life.
Love is the light of life, Love is the fire of life.

Ae Haram-E-Qurtuba! Ishq Se Tera Wujood
Ishq Sarapa Dawam, Jis Mein Nahin Raft-o-Bood

To Love, you owe your being, O, Harem of Cordoba,
To Love, that is eternal; Never waning, never fading.

Rang Ho Ya Khisht-o-Sang, Chang Ho Ya Harf-o-Soot
Moajaza-E-Fan Ki Hai Khoon-E-Jigar Se Namood

Just the media these pigments, bricks and stones; This harp, these words and sounds, just the media.
The miracle of art springs from the lifeblood of the artist!

Katra-E-Khoon-E-Jigar Sil Ko Banata Hai Dil
Khoon-E-Jigar Se Sada Souz-o-Suroor-o-Surood

A droplet of the lifeblood transforms a piece of dead rock into a living heart;
An impressive sound, into a song of solicitude, A refrain of rapture or a melody of mirth.

Teri Fiza Dil Faroz , Meri Nawa Sina Soz
Tujh Se Dilon Ka Huzoor, Mujh Se Dilon Ki Kushood

The aura you exude, illumines the heart. My plaint kindles the soul.
You draw the hearts to the Presence Divine, I inspire them to bloom and blossom.

Arsh-E-Muala Se Kam Sina’ay Adam Nahin
Garche Kaf-Ekhak Ki Had Hai Sipihr-E-Kubood

No less exalted than the Exalted Throne, Is the throne of the heart, the human breast!
Despite the limit of azure skies, Ordained for this handful of dust.

Pekar-E-Noori Ko Hai Sajda Meyasir To Kya
Iss Ko Meyasir Nahin Soz-O-Gudaaz-E-Sujood

Celestial beings, born of light, Do have the privilege of supplication,
But unknown to them are the verve and warmth of prostration.

Kafir-E-Hindi Hun Main, Dekh Mera Zauq-O-Shauq
Dil Mein Salat-O-Durood, Lab Pe Salat-O-Durood

An Indian infidel, perchance, am I; But look at my fervour, my ardour.
‘Blessings and peace upon the Prophet,’ sings my heart.
‘Blessings and peace upon the Prophet,’ echo my lips.

Shauq Meri Le Main Hai, Shauq Meri Ne Mein Hai
Naghma’ay ‘ALLAH HOO’ Mere Rag-E-Pe Mein Hai

My song is the song of aspiration. My lute is the serenade of longing.
Every fibre of my being Resonates with the refrains of Allah hoo!

Tera Jalal-O-Jamal, Mard-E-Khuda Ki Daleel
Woh Bhi Jaleel-O-Jameel, Tu Bhi Jaleel-O-Jameel

Your beauty, your majesty, Personify the graces of the man of faith.
You are beautiful and majestic. He too is beautiful and majestic.

Teri Bina Paidar, Tere Sutoon Be-Shumar
Sham Ke Sehra Mein Ho Jaise Hujoom-E-Nakheel

Your foundations are lasting, Your columns countless,
Like the profusion of palms In the plains of Syria.

Tere Dar-O-Baam Par Wadi-E-Ayman Ka Noor
Tera Minaar-E-Buland Jalwagah-E-Jibreel

Your arches, your terraces, shimmer with the light that once flashed in the valley of Aiman
Your soaring minaret, all aglow In the resplendence of Gabriel’s glory.

Mit Nahin Sakta Kabhi Mard-E-Musalman Ke Hai
Iss Ki Azanon Se Fash Sir-E-Kaleem(A.S.)-O-Khalil(A.S.)

The Muslim is destined to last as
his Azan holds the key to the mysteries of the perennial message of Abraham and Moses.

Iss Ki Zameen Behadood, Is Ka Ufaq Be Sooghoor
Iss Ke Samundar Ki Mouj, Dajla-O-Danyob-O-Neel

His world knows no boundaries, His horizon, no frontiers.
Tigris, Danube and Nile: Billows of his oceanic expanse.

Iss Ke Zamane Ajeeb, Iss Ke Fasane Ghareeb
Ehad-E-Kuhan Ko Diya Iss Ne Payam-E-Raheel

Fabulous, have been his times! Fascinating, the accounts of his achievements!
He it was, who bade the final adieu To the outworn order.

Saqi Arbab-E-Zauq, Faris-E-Maidan-E-Shauq
Badah Hai Iss Ka Raheeq, Taeg Hai Iss Ki Aseel

A cup‐bearer is he, With the purest wine for the connoisseur;
A cavalier in the path of Love with a sword of the finest steel.

Mard-E-Sipahi Hai Woh, Iski Zirah ‘LA ILAHA’
Saya-E-Shamsheer Mein Is Ski Panah ‘LA ILAHA’

A combatant, with ‘La Ilah’ as his coat of mail.
Under the shadow of flashing scimitars, ‘La Ilah’ is his protection.

Tujh Se Huwa Ashkara Banda-E-Momin Ka Raaz
Iss Ke Dino Ki Tapish, Is Ke Shabon Ka Gudaaz

Your edifice unravels The mystery of the faithful;
The fire of his fervent days, The bliss of his tender nights.

Iss Ka Maqam Buland, Iss Ka Khayal Azeem
Iss Ka Suroor Iss Ka Shauq, Iss Ka Niaz Iss Ka Naaz

Your grandeur calls to mind The loftiness of his station,
The sweep of his vision, His rapture, his ardour, his pride, his humility.

Hath Hai ALLAH Ka Banda-E-Momin Ka Hath
Ghalib-O-Kaar Afreen, Kaar Kusha, Kaar Saaz

The might of the man of faith is the might of the Almighty:
Dominant, creative, resourceful, consummate.

Khaki-O-Noori Nihad, Banda-E-Mola Sifat
Har Do Jahan Se Ghani Iss Ka Dil-E-Beniaz

He is terrestrial with celestial aspect; A being with the qualities of the Creator.
His contented self has no demands on this world or the other.

Uss Ki Umeedain Qaleel, Uss Ke Maqasid Jaleel
Uss Ki Ada Dil Faraib, Iss Ki Nigah Dil Nawaz

His desires are modest; his aims exalted;
His manner charming; his ways winsome.

Naram Dam-E-Guftugoo, Garam Dam-E-Justujoo
Razm Ho Ya Bazm Ho, Pak Dil-O-Pak Baz

Soft in social exposure, Tough in the line of pursuit.
But whether in fray or in social gathering,  Ever chaste at heart, ever clean in conduct.

Nukta’ay Parkar-E-Haq, Mard-E-Khuda Ka Yaqeen
Aur Ye Alam Tamam Weham-O-Tilism-O-Majaz

In the celestial order of the macrocosm, His immutable faith is the centre of the Divine Compass.
All else: illusion, sorcery, fallacy.

Aqal Ki Manzil Hai Woh, Ishq Ka Hasil Hai Woh
Halqa’ay Afaq Mein Garmi-E-Mehfil Hai Woh

He is the journey’s end for reason, He is the raison d ’etre of Love.
An inspiration in the cosmic communion.

Kaaba Arbab-E-Fan! Sitwat-E-Deen-E-Mubeen
Tujh Se Haram Martabat Andlusiyon Ki Zameen

O, Mecca of art lovers, You are the majesty of the true tenet.
You have elevated Andalusia To the eminence of the holy Harem.

Hai Teh-E-Gardoon Agar Husn Mein Teri Nazeer
Qalb-E-Musalman Mein Hai, Aur Nahin Hai Kahin

Your equal in beauty, If any under the skies,
Is the heart of the Muslim and no one else.

Aah Woh Mardan-E-Haq! Woh Arabi Shehsawar
Hamil-E-Khulq-E-Azeem, Sahib-E-Sidq-O-Yaqeen

 Ah, those men of truth, Those proud cavaliers of Arabia;
Endowed with a sublime character, Imbued with candour and conviction.

Jin Ki Hukumat Se Hai Fash Ye Ramz-E-Ghareeb
Saltanat Ahl-E-Dil Faqar Hai, Shahi Nahin

Their reign gave the world an unfamiliar concept;
That the authority of the brave and spirited lay in modesty and simplicity, rather than pomp and regality.

Jin Ki Nigahon Ne Ki Tarbiat-E-Sharq-O-Gharb
Zulmat-E-Yorap Mein Thi Jin Khird Rah Been

Their sagacity guided the East and the West.
In the dark ages of Europe, It was the light of their vision that lit up the tracks.

Jin Ke Lahoo Ki Tafail Aaj Bhi Hain Andlasi
Khush Dil-O-Garam Ikhtalaat, Sada-O-Roshan Jabeen

A tribute to their blood it is, That the Andalusians, even today,
Are effable and warm‐hearted, Ingenuous and bright of countenance.

Aaj Bhi Iss Dais Mein Aam Hai Chasm-E-Ghazaal
Aur Nigahon Ke Teer Aaj Bhi Hain Dil Nasheen

Even today in this land, Eyes like those of gazelles are a common sight.
And darts shooting out of those eyes, Even today, are on target.

Boo’ay Yaman Aaj Bhi Is Ski Hawaon Mein Hai
Rang-E-Hijaz Aaj Bhi Iss Ki Nawaon Mein Hai

Its breeze, even today, Is laden with the fragrance of Yemen.
Its music, even today, Carries strains of melodies from Hijaz.

Didah-E-Anjum Mein Hai Teri Zameen, Asman
Aah Ke Sadiyon Se Hai Teri Faza Be-Azan

Stars look upon your precincts as a piece of heaven.
But for centuries, alas! Your porticoes have not resonated With the call of the muezzin.

Kon Se Wadi Mein Hai, Kon Si Manzil Mein Hai
Ishq-E-Bala Khaiz Ka Kafla’ay Sakht Jaan!

What distant valley, what way‐side abode is holding back
That valiant caravan of rampant Love.

Dekh Chuka Almani, Shorish-E-Islah-E-Deen
Jis Ne Na Chore Kahin Naqsh-E-Kuhan Ke Nishan

Germany witnessed the upheaval of religious reforms
That left no trace of the old perspective. 

Harf-E-Galat Ban Gyi Ismat-E-Peer-E-Kunisht
Aur Huwi  Fikar Ki Kashti-E-Nazuk Rawan

Infallibility of the church sage began to ring false.
Reason, once more, unfurled its sails.

Chashme-E-Francis Bhi Dekh Chuki Inqilab
Jis Se Digargoon Huwa Magribiyon Ka Jahan

France too went through its revolution
That changed the entire orientation of Western life.

Millat-E-Roomi Nazad Kuhna Prasti Se Peer
Lazzat-E-Tajdeed Se Woh Bhi Huwi Phir Jawan

Followers of Rome, feeling antiquated worshipping the ancientry,
Also rejuvenated themselves with the relish of novelty.

Rooh-E-Musalman Mein Hai Aaj Wohi Iztarab
Raaz-E-Khudai Hai Ye, Keh Nahin Sakti Zuban

The same storm is raging today In the soul of the Muslim.
A Divine secret it is, Not for the lips to utter.

Dekhiye Iss Behar Ki Teh Se Uchalta Hai Kya
Gunbad-E-Nilofari Rang Badalta Hai Kya!

Let us see what surfaces from the depths of the deep.
Let us see what color, The blue sky changes into.

Wadi-E-Kuhsaar Mein Garaq-E-Shafaq Hai Sahab
La’al-E-Badkhashan Ke Dhair Chor Gya Aftab

Clouds in the yonder valley are drenched in roseate twilight.
The parting sun has left behind mounds and mounds of rubies, the best from Badakhshan.

Sada-O-Pursoz Hai Dukhtar-E-Dehqan Ka Geet
Kashti-E-Dil Ke Liye Sayl Hai Ehad-E-Shabab

Simple and doleful is the song of the peasant’s daughter:
Tender feelings adrift in the tide of youth.

Aab-E-Rawan-E-Kabeer ! Tere Kinare Koi
Dekh Raha Hai Kisi Aur Zamane Ka Khawab

O, the ever‐flowing waters of Guadalquivir (1,  see reference at end),
Someone on your banks is seeing a vision of some other period of time.

Alam-E-Nau Hai Abhi Parda’ay Taqdeer Mein
Meri Nigahon Mein Hai Iss Ki Sehar Behijab

Tomorrow is still in the curtain of intention,
But its dawn is flashing before my mind’s eye.

Parda Utha Doon Agar Chehra’ay Afkar Se
La Na Sake Ga Farang Meri Nawa’on Ki Taab

Were I to lift the veil from the profile of my reflections,
The West would be dazzled by its brilliance.

Jis Mein Na Ho Inqilab, Mout Hai Woh Zindagi
Rooh-E-Ummam Ki Hayat Kashmakash-E-Inqilab

Life without change is death.
The tumult and turmoil of revolution, Keep the soul of a nation alive.

Soorat-E-Shamsheer Hai Dast-E-Qaza Mein Woh Qaum
Karti Hai Jo Har Zaman Apne Amal Ka Hisaab

Keen, as a sword in the hands of Destiny
Is the nation that evaluates its actions at each step.

Naqsh Hain Sub Na-Tamam Khoon-E-Jigar Ke Begair
Naghma Hai Soda’ay Kham Khoon-E-Jigar Ke Begair

Incomplete are all creations without the lifeblood of the creator.
Soulless is the melody without the lifeblood of the maestro.

Wada-Al-Kabeer, Qurtuba Ka Mashoor Darya Jis Ke Qareeb Hi Masjid-E-Qurtaba Waqiya Hai
(1) Guadalquivir—“The well‐known river of Cordoba, near which the Mosque is located.”